Definition of Chicken Pox Disease:
Chicken pox disease (also known as Vericella) is a highly contagious viral illness characterized by a very small, itchy, red skin rash which eventually scab over.
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is the causative agent for chicken pox.
If a person stays with chicken pox affected person with close contact (such as face to face, touching affected people cloth) he or she will in high risk of affecting by chicken pox virus. The incubation period is 7 to 21 days after exposure to the Vericella Zoster Virus to the development of the symptoms.
A person with chicken pox can spread the disease from 1 to 2 days before the rash appears and until the rash is completely dry and scabbed over.
- Direct contact with the blister of chicken pox.
- By droplet (Coughing or sneezing).
- Contact with the infected items such as cloth, towel, and bed sheets.
Risk Factors of Chicken Pox Disease:
Various risk factors for chicken pox are mentioned in the following:
- Children (Under 10 year) are more susceptible than adult.
- The person who have never experienced with chicken pox.
- The person who is not vaccinated against Vericella Zoster Virus (VZV).
- Pregnant women.
- People with weak immune system (HIV/ AIDS, Cancer).
- Organ transplants (Kidney and Liver transplant).
- Taking immune suppressive drug such as chemotherapy or long term using steroids.
Sign and Symptoms of Chicken Pox Disease:
There are different types of sign and symptoms for chicken pox, those are mentioned in the below:
- The first symptoms of chicken pox includes fever (100.4°F-103°F),
- Loss of appetite,
- Tiredness and sluggish,
- Headache and oral soars,
- After 1 or 2 days itchy rash appears,
- Rash spreads from the torso to the neck, face and limbs.
- Rash progresses red bumps to fluid filled blisters,
- Blister lasting 7 to 10 days.
- Blister also appears in inside of mouth, on the scalp, around the eyes and on the genitals area.
Test and Diagnosis for Chicken Pox Disease:
Various types of test and diagnosis for chicken pox are mentioned in the following:
- Primary diagnosis based on sign, symptoms and characteristic of rash.
- Direct fluorescent antibody.
- IGM to identify a response of acute infection.
- Ultrasound for pregnant women to check for birth defects.
- PCR test of amniotic fluid to identify any risk of spontaneous abortion.
Treatment for Chicken Pox Disease:
There are different types of treatment for chicken pox disease, those are mentioned in the below:
- For healthy adult or children, no need hospitalizing, just take home treatment.
- Tepid baths with ½ cup of sodium bicarbonate or solutions such as Pinetarsol added can also be helpful in relieving itching.
- Antiviral drug (Acyclovir, Famciclovir, and Valacyclovir).
- Pain killer and antipyretics drug (Acetaminophen, Paracetamol).
- Antihistamine diphenhydramine (Benadryl), to reduce itching and swelling.
- Topical lotion (Calamine bacterial infection).
- Over-the-counter hydrocortisone cream on itchy areas.
Prevention for Chicken Pox Disease:
Various prevention ways for Chicken Pox disease are in the following:
- Isolation care,
- Hygiene measures,
Complication for Chicken Pox Disease:
There are different complications for chicken pox disease, those are in the below:
- Persistent sleepiness or lethargy,
- Bleeding problems,
- Encephalitis, Cerebral ataxia, meningitis,
- Bacterial infection,
- Bone and joint infection (Transient Arthritis),
- Toxic shock syndrome,
- Reye’s Syndrome,
Nursing Intervention for Chicken Pox Disease:
There are different types of nursing intervention for chicken pox disease; those are mentioned in the following:
- Assess patient sign condition carefully and check any complication.
- Provide 100% cotton and loose dress to prevent discomfort and break up blister.
- Give baths with cool or Luke warm water every 3 to 4 hours for first few days.
- Use backing soda in water to give bath.
- Use cool and wet towels to dry skin.
- Apply calamine lotion over the lesions to reduce itching.
- Apply a soothing moisturizer after bathing to soften and cool the skin.
- Encourage patient to do not scratching blister and trim finger nails.
- Cover child hands with socks or mittens to avoid scratching.
- Avoid nappy or diaper as much as possible to allow the vesicle dry out and scab.
- Monitor fever and give age appropriate paracetamol as ordered.
- Administer antibiotic if any secondary bacterial complication arise.
- Administer over the counter medication for alive itching as ordered.
- Keep hold aspirin like medication if patient takes previously as doctor advised.
- Serve cold, soft and bland diet because chicken pox in mouth can make drinking or eating difficult.
- Instruct patient to avoid prolonged exposure to excessive heat and humidity.
- Provide isolation care to prevent spread of infection and dispose all PPE properly.
- Limited visitor to reduce chance of infection.
- Encourage patient to pit in a bin carefully to prevent spread.
- Wash hands carefully before and after each treatment to Prevent of secondary infection of the skin lesions.
- Instruct patient and family members to disinfect cloths and linen by hot water and soap and dry in sunlight.
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