How Can We Prevent From Chikungunya Virus?
Chikungunya is viral disease that transmitted to human by infected Aedes mosquitoes. Infected mosquitos transmit the virus to other people by their bits. To prevent the spread of the chikungunya virus, it is most important to avoid mosquito bites by minimizing contact with mosquitoes. All suspected cases should be kept under mosquito nets during the febrile period. Nursing interventions are very important for chikungunya virus affected patients who are hospitalized.
Prevention for Chikungunya Virus:
Chikungunya virus is transmitted by mosquito bite. So the best methods of prevention involve minimizing contact with mosquitos. Some important steps can take to prevent transmission of chikungunya virus include:
- Use mosquito’s ejector containing DEET (N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide) or picaridin on skin and cloth.
- Wear cloth that covers the whole body.
- Stay in home as much as possible, especially during early morning and late afternoon.
- Avoid travelling in chikungunya virus affected endemic area.
- Use products containing of PMD (p-Menthane-3, 8-diol) or oil of lemon eucalyptus that can be helpful.
- Use air-conditioning- this prevents mosquitos from entering rooms.
- Use mosquito net during sleeping.
- Use mosquito nets to protect family members (babies, older) and sick people and others who rest during the day.
- Use mosquito coils and insecticide vaporizers to kill mosquitos during the daytime.
- Destroy discarded containers from around the surrounding.
- Usable containers turn over or empty every 3-4 days to prevent chikungunya virus vector mosquito breeding.
Nursing Intervention for Chikungunya Virus Affected Patient:
In acute stage nursing intervention are very important for the hospitalized patient. Some important nursing interventions for chikungunya virus affected patient are pointed below:
- Monitor vital sings carefully and keep record.
- Obtain frequent temperature reading and record it.
- Check color, features of rash and temperature of skin.
- Observe for shivering and diaphoresis.
- Ensure tepid sponging of whole body to reduce temperature.
- Maximize heat loss by minimizing external covering of patient’s body and ensuring adequate ventilation.
- Give antipyretic as per doctor order and check persons with no preexisting liver or kidney disease.
- Inform patient to avoid self-medication with aspirin or other pain killers
- Assess for presence of thirst and malaise.
- Encourage patients to take deep breaths when nauseated.
- Encourage oral hygiene and provide frequent mouth care.
- Encourage patient to drink plenty of water with electrolytes (approximately 2.5-3 liters per day).
- Maintain intake output chart during acute phase for hospitalized patient.
- Encourage patient to take nutritious and fresh food to recover early.
- Observe clients for nausea and vomiting and give ice, drinks containing carbonated as indicated.
- Provide small, frequent meals and instruct patient to ingest slowly.
- Keep hospital surroundings clean and dump free.
- Encourage verbalization of feelings about pain.
- Instruct patient to assume comfortable position while on bed or sitting in chair.
- Assist patient to move in bed, supporting affected joints above and below without jerking.
- Instruct patient to avoid jerky movements.
- Apply warm, moist compresses to affected joints several times a day.
- Inform patient to avoid heat therapy during acute stage because it increase or worsen joint pain.
- Allow patient to mild exercise and physiotherapy that help patient recover.
- Refrain patient form hard work and exertion.
- Ensure a quiet environment and adequate rest to reduce headache.
- Massage the head and neck if patient tolerate to reduce headache.
- Administer non-narcotic analgesics or codeine if ordered to reduce headache.
- Identify physical and emotional factors that can cause fatigue.
- Provide instruction to patient about fatigue and describe relationship of disease activity to fatigue.
- Facilitate development of appropriate activity/rest schedule.
- Explain how to use energy conservation techniques (Pacing, delegating, setting priorities).