Hypertension Disease Definition:
Hypertension disease is known as high blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated when the 140/90mmhg or higher is called high blood pressure or hypertension.
High Blood Pressure Dangers: Hypertension’s Effects
High blood pressure diagnosed when one or both (systolic and diastolic) of these numbers is too high. Stage or categorized of blood pressure are following:
Less than 120-80mmhg
120-80mmhg to 139-89mmhg
160-100mmhg or higher
180-110mmhg or higher
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing up against the walls of blood vessels (Artery).the normal range of blood pressure 120/80mmhg.
Causes and Risk Factors of Hypertension Disease:
The main causes and risk factors of hypertension are in the below:
- Lack of exercise,
- Stress and depression,
- Vitamin D deficiency,
- Drug abuse and alcoholism,
- Cushing syndrome,
- Sedentary lifestyle,
- Intake of extra salt,
- Insufficient calcium, magnesium, and potassium intake,
- Chronic kidney disease,
- Adrenal and thyroid problems,
- Adrenal gland tumours,
- Thyroid problems,
- Certain medications such as birth control pills, cough and cold remedies and over-the-counter pain relievers( NSAIDs),
- Obstructive sleep apnea.
Sign and Symptoms of Hypertension Disease:
Various symptoms for hypertension are in the following:
- Severe headache,
- Fatigue or confusion,
- Blurred vision,
- Light headedness,
- Irregular heart beat,
- Blood in urine.
Diagnosis of Hypertension Disease:
Different diagnosis ways for hypertension are in the following:
- Manual checking of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer,
- Family history,
- Cause and Risk factors.
Management of Hypertension Disease or Hypertension Disease Management:
There are two ways to control high blood pressure, which are in the below:
- Lifestyle modification,
1. Lifestyle Modification:
- Maintain normal weight ( weight loss),
- Take healthy diet,
- Avoid extra salt,
- Quit smoking and alcoholism,
- Regular physical exercise,
- Avoid stress and depression,
- Control of blood sugar,
- Take potassium, calcium and magnesium rich diet.
- ACE Inhibitors (Captopril,Enalopril,Perindopril,Quinapril).an ACE inhibitors is particularly.
- Useful if heart failure and diabetes present.
- Beta blockers (Acebutolol, Atenolol, Bisoprolol, Propranolol, Timolol).Slowing the heart rate and reducing the force of heart.
- Calcium channel blockers (Amlodipine,DIltiazem, Felodipine,Nifidipine, Verapamil). Relaxing blood vessels and control blood pressure.
- Diuretics (Bendroflumethiazide, Chlortalidone, Cyclopenthiazide and Indapamide). Reducing the extra fluid in blood and reduce blood pressure.
These medications can be used alone or combined to control blood pressure.
Prevention for Hypertension Disease or Hypertension Treatment:
There are different ways for prevention from hypertension which are in the below:
- Control of normal body weight (e.g. body mass index 20 -25 kg/m2.
- Reduce intake of dietary sodium.
- Quit alcoholism and drug abuse.
- Engage in regular activity and perform daily physical exercise.
- Avoid stress and anxiety.
Complication for Hypertension Disease:
Various complication for hypertension are in the following:
- Heart attack or stroke,
- Weakened and narrowed blood vessels of kidney,
- Heart failure,
- Thickened narrowed or torn blood vessels of eyes ( Blindness),
- Metabolic syndrome.
Nursing Intervention for Hypertension Disease:
Different nursing intervention for hypertension are in the following:
- Monitor and measure blood pressure in both hands, using a cuff and proper techniques four hourly and compare with normal range and previous parameter of the patient.
- Check the quality of central and peripheral pulses.
- Auscultation of breath and heart sounds and observe skin colour, moisture, temperature and capillary refill time.
- Timely administer medication as indicated and do not administer two antihypertensive medicines at same time.
- Monitor response of antihypertensive medication.
- Ensure bed rest and maintain restrictions on activities.
- Assist patient in self care activities as needed.
- Provide a calm and quite environment and reduce stress.
- Encourage patient to express feeling and explain patient condition time to time.
- Provide low calorie, salt restricted and potassium, calcium, magnesium rich diet and explain the needed of such type of diet.
- Minimize interruption and environmental stimuli.
- Provide analgesic and sedative drugs as order.
- Encourage patient to avoid constipation and ensure intake of fibre diet.
- Maintain fluid intake output carefully.
- Encourage and discuss the importance of controlling weight.
- Encourage patient to establish an individual exercise program incorporating aerobic exercise.
- Monitor electrolytes and creatinine as indicated.
- Encourage patient to quit alcohol and illicit drug use.
- Monitor sign symptoms of hypertension complications such as headache, dizziness, fainting, nausea and vomiting.
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