Hyponatremia is decrease of the sodium level < 135mEq/L in blood. In the majority of causes, it is occurred by an excess of water relative to solute and some underlying medical reasons, resulting in an electrolyte disturbance where the sodium concentration in the blood plasma is lower than normal condition. Common causes are heart failure, diuretic use, liver disease, diarrhea, renal disease, and the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion. Some important sign and symptoms of hyponatremia disease have presented in this article.
What is Hyponatremia?
It refers to low level of sodium concentration in the blood. Here, a normal sodium level lies between 135- 145 miliequivalents per each liter (mEq/L). It is normally defined when the sodium in blood falls below 135mEq/L. Severe hyponatremia considered when the serum sodium level is less than 125mEq/L.
Causes of Hyponatremia:
There are various types of causes of it, which are pointed out in the below:
- Congestive heart failure,
- Severe vomiting and diarrhea,
- Massive edema of any cause,
- Neprotic syndrome in the kidneys,
- Certain medications such as diuretics, antidepressants, glucocorticoid and pain medications,
- Certain medications,
- Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion( SIADH),
- Addison’s disease ( Adrenal gland insufficiency),
- Hormonal changes,
- Congenital Adrenal hyperplasia,
- Heart, kidney and liver problems,
- Liver cirrhosis,
- Drinking too much water,
- A prolonged period of exercise such as marathons, ultra marathons.
Symptoms of Hyponatremia:
The presence and severity of symptoms depends on the level of plasma sodium. The severity of symptoms associated on how fast and severe the drop in the blood sodium level. There are different symptoms of it, which are presented in the following:
- Nausea and vomiting,
- Loss of appetite and decrease saliva production,
- Poor skin turgor and dry mucosa,
- Confusion or short term memory loss,
- Orthostatic fall in B/P,
- Muscles weakness, spasms or cramps,
- Convulsions/ seizures,