When the level of sodium in our blood is abnormally low then hyponatremia condition occurred. It should be noted here that, sodium is one kinds of electrolyte which helps to regulate the amount of water that’s in and around our cells. This article has shown some important treatments and complications of hyponatremia disease, which will be very useful for all.
Treatment of Hyponatremia Disease:
Treatment of hyponatremia depends on cause. The purpose of hyponatremia treatment is resolving the underlying condition. There are some important treatments for hyponatremia disease which are presented in the below:
- If it is due to diet, diuretics or drinking too much water, so physician may decide to temporarily cutting back fluids.
- If cancer is the cause of the condition, radiation, chemotherapy or surgery to remove the tumor.
- If hypervolemic hyponatremia , treat patients with salt and fluid restriction, loop diuretics, and correction of the underlying condition.
- If euvolemic cause of hyponatremia, generally treat patient with free water restriction ( <1L/Day).
- If Hypovolemic hyponatremia, first treatment choice is to administer isotonic saline to replace the contracted intravascular volume. Second choice is diuretics needed for potassium repletion, which like sodium, is osmotically active. Correction of volume repletion stops the stimulus of ADH secretion. So a large water diuresis can result to a more rapid correction of hyponatremia than desired.
- In severe symptomatic hyponatremia, treat with hypertonic (3%) saline.
- Acute hyponatremia (duration < 48h) can be safely corrected more easily than chronic hyponatremia. Acute hyponatremic patient is in danger from brain edema. Rapid correction of sodium can lead severe neurologic complication.
- The treatment goal for acute symptomatic patient is to increase the serum sodium level by approximately 1-2mEq/L/h for 3-4 hours, until the neurologic symptoms subside or until plasma sodium concentration is over 120mEq/L.
- In chronic, severe symptomatic hyponatremia, the rate of correction should not more than 0.5-1 mEq/L/h, with a total increase not to more 8-12mEq/L/d and no more than 18mEq/L in the first 48 hours.
- If kidneys are not working well, may need dialysis to decrease the extra water from body.
Complication of Hyponatremia Disease:
Various complications of hyponatremia disease have pointed out in the following:
- Osteoporosis ,
- Decreased consciousness,
- Hallucination or coma,
- Brain herniation,
- Cardiopulmonary arrest.