A normal sodium level is between 135- 145 mili equivalents per liter (mEq/L). Hyponatremia is generally defined when the sodium in blood falls below 135mEq/L. Severe Hyponatremia considered when the serum sodium level is less than 125mEq/L. Hyponatremia is frequently related to hypovolemia or fluid overload. Sharp nursing assessment skills and proper care can prove invaluable in the treatment of patient and prevention of complication. This article has presented different key nursing interventions for hyponatremia patient which will be very useful for the nurses.
Nursing Intervention for Hyponatremic Patient:
There are various types of nursing intervention for hyponatremia patient, which are pointed out in the below:
- Strictly maintain fluid intake and output of patient hourly.
- Check weight everyday to monitor the fluid volume status.
- Monitor and observe skin turgor to identify dehydration and accurately record state of hydration.
- Monitor vital signs carefully and note respiratory rate and depth to indentify pulmonary edema.
- Check and monitor the hyponatremia patient for signs of edema and hypertension.
- Monitor for signs of circulatory overload, as indicated
- Ensure high sodium containing food such as milk, meat, eggs, carrots, beets and celery.
- Ensure adequate dietary sodium intake of 90 to 250 mEq Day.
- Monitor and observe for neuromuscular changes such as declining levels of consciousness, fatigue and muscular weakness.
- Give supplemental oxygen to lethargy or unconscious patient as needed.
- Patient with sodium imbalances often are confused and act as crazy. So ensure safety measure.
- Maintain quiet environment.
- Keep bed in low locked position.
- Keep side rails up to prevent fall.
- Keep nurse call within reach and instruct patient to call nurse for any assistance.
- Carefully monitor hyponatremia patient for any sign of convulsion and notify to physician.
- Take seizure precautions as order.
- Monitor laboratory serum sodium levels as order to determine the effectiveness of IV fluids.
- Administer prescribed medication as order.
- Carefully administer the 3% or 5% sodium containing fluid by using infusion pump as prescribed.
- Monitor IV site for patency, signs of infiltration such as redness or irritation.
- Identify the specific cause of hyponatremia such as sodium loss or fluid excess.
- Give mouth care frequently as dry mouth and saliva production decreased.
- Irrigate nasogastric tube with normal saline instead of plain water.
- Prepare patient for dialysis as indicated.
- Address acute life threatening conditions and initiate supportive care.