What is Primary Health Care (PHC)?
Primary health care (PHC) is essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and acceptable to them, through full participation and at a cost the community and country can afford. It is an approach to health beyond the traditional health care system that focuses on health equity-producing social policy. Primary health-care (PHC) has basic essential elements and objectives that help to attain better health services for all.
Essential Elements of Primary Health Care (PHC):
There are 8 elements of primary-health care (PHC). That listed below-
- E– Education concerning prevailing health problems and the methods of identifying, preventing and controlling them.
- L– Locally endemic disease prevention and control.
- E– Expanded programme of immunization against major infectious diseases.
- M– Maternal and child health care including family planning.
- E– Essential drugs arrangement.
- N– Nutritional food supplement, an adequate supply of safe and basic nutrition.
- T– Treatment of communicable and non-communicable disease and promotion of mental health.
- S– Safe water and sanitation.
Extended Elements in 21st Century:
- Expended options of immunizations.
- Reproductive health needs.
- Provision of essential technologies for health.
- Health promotion.
- Prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.
- Food safety and provision of selected food supplements.
Principles of Primary Health Care (PHC):
Behind these elements lies a series of basic objectives that should be formulated in national policies in order to launch and sustain primary health-care (PHC) as part of a comprehensive health system and coordination with other sectors.
- Improvement in the level of health care of the community.
- Favorable population growth structure.
- Reduction in the prevalence of preventable, communicable and other disease.
- Reduction in morbidity and mortality rates especially among infants and children.
- Extension of essential health services with priority given to the undeserved sectors.
- Improvement in basic sanitation.
- Development of the capability of the community aimed at self-reliance.
- Maximizing the contribution of the other sectors for the social and economic development of the community.
- Equitable distribution of health care– according to this principle, primary care and other services to meet the main health problems in a community must be provided equally to all individuals irrespective of their gender, age, and caste, urban/rural and social class.
- Community participation-comprehensive healthcare relies on adequate number and distribution of trained physicians, nurses, allied health professions, community health workers and others working as a health team and supported at the local and referral levels.
- Multi-sectional approach-recognition that health cannot be improved by intervention within just the formal health sector; other sectors are equally important in promoting the health and self- reliance of communities.
- Use of appropriate technology- medical technology should be provided that accessible, affordable, feasible and culturally acceptable to the community.
More questions related this topic:
- What is primary health care system?
- Discuss about 8 essential elements of primary health-care.
- Primary Health Care Definition, Goal, Principles and Strategies.
- Components of primary health care world health organization.
- Health education in primary health care a perspective.
- Pillars of primary health care.
- Primary health care concepts and principles.
- Principles and elements of primary health-care.