Definition of Myocardial Infarction Disease (MI):
Myocardial infarction disease (MI) is the irreversible damage and death of myocardial muscle cells from the sudden blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot or plaque.
Types of Myocardial Infarction Disease (MI):
There are two types of myocardial infarction (MI). Those are in the following-
1. ST Elevated MI:
In a STEMI, is complete blockage or occultation by the blood clot, and as a result heart muscle being supplied by the affected starts to die.
This type of heart attack is more severe. It is usually recognized by ECG. ECG shows that the “ST-Segment” portion is highly elevated. The elevated ST-Segment indicates a large amount of heart muscle damage.
In an NSTEMI, the artery partially or partly occludes and as a result, only a portion of the heart muscle being supplied blood by the affected artery dies. In Non-STEMI, does not elevate ST segment in ECG.
Causes of Myocardial Infarction Disease (MI) or Myocardial Infarction Causes:
There are different causes of myocardial infarction. Those are in the following-
- Embolisms or thrombosis,
- Coronary artery spasms,
- High level of blood cholesterol,
- Inadequate perfusion to meet metabolic demand,
- Short time exposure to air pollution,
- Emotional stress,
- Men are more at risk than women,
- Use of combined oral contraceptive pills.
Heart attack appears to occur more in the morning hours especially 6 am and noon.
Clinical Features of Myocardial Infarction Disease (MI):
Clinical features for myocardial infarction are the following:
- Chest pain described as a crushing, burning, tightness, squeezing, fullness in the midportion,
- Dyspnea or shortness of breath,
- Anxiety, restlessness, diaphoresis, pallor, denial, and crackles,
- Syncope or near syncope,
- Impairment of cognitive function without other causes.
Diagnostic Test for Myocardial Infarction Disease (MI) or Myocardial Infarction Diagnosis:
There are different diagnostic tests for myocardial infarction. Those are in the following:
- Troponin 1, CK MB, Myoglobin level increase,
- Lipid profile,
- CBC (Increased WBC),
Treatment for Myocardial Infarction Disease (MI):
There are different treatments for myocardial infarction. Those are in the following:
- Antiplatelet agents (Aspirin),
- Narcotics such as morphine sulfate,
- Anticoagulant therapy (Heparin),
- Beta-blockers (Metoprolol, Atenolol),
- Unfractionated heparin,
- Low molecular weight heparin,
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (Captopril, Enalapril),
- Antiarrhythmics (Lidocaine),
- Aldosterone Antagonists.
Other Treatment options for Myocardial Infarction Disease (MI):
Those are in the following-
- Percutaneous Coronary Intervention(PCI).
- Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.
- Lifestyle modification.
Nursing Intervention for Myocardial Infarction Disease (MI):
Nursing interventions for myocardial infarction are in the below-
- Take immediate action if a patient complains about their chest.
- Have to identify different types of myocardial infarction symptoms.
- Check vitals sign.
- Establish venous access.
- Have to identify different types of myocardial infarction risk factors.
- Keep patient semi-fowlers position.
- Administer oxygen through nasal cannula or face mask.
- Administer Nitroglycerine and check vitals every 15 minutes.
- Administer aspirin to inhibit platelet activity.
- Administer Morphine and check vitals before and after administration.
- Should be done ECG with 10 minutes to identify pt experiencing MI.
- Administer other medications as indicated by the doctor, such as anti-coagulate, ACE inhibitors, Beta-blockers.
- Collect a blood sample and check results.
- Instruct patient to stop all kinds of activities and encourage rest.
- Instruct patient to avoid increasing abdominal pressure during defecation.
- Provide small and easily digested meals.
- Give a few times for rest after a meal.
- Identify pt perception of disease condition and encourage expressing feeling.
- Maintain a confident manner and explain all activities.
More questions related to this topic:
- Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack) Causes and Warning.
- Acute Myocardial Infarction: Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis.
- Heart Attack: Learn About Symptoms and Treatment.
- Myocardial Infarction: Practice Essentials, Background.
- What is an Acute Myocardial Infarction?
- What is a Transmural Myocardial Infarction?
- What is a Myocardial Infarction?
- Myocardial Infarction Diabetes.
- Myocardial Infarction Definition.
Maria Khatun Mona is a Founder and Editor of Nursing Exercise Blog. She is a Nursing and Midwifery Expert. Currently she is working as a Registered Nurse at Evercare Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. She has great passion in writing different articles on Nursing and Midwifery. Mail her at “[email protected]”