Key Elements of Primary Health Care (PHC)

What is Primary Health Care (PHC)?

Primary health care (PHC) is essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and acceptable to them, through full participation and at a cost the community and country can afford. It is an approach to health beyond the traditional health care system that focuses on health equity-producing social policy. Primary health-care (PHC) has basic essential elements and objectives that help to attain better health services for all.

Primary health care elements
Primary health care elements

Essential Elements of Primary Health Care (PHC):

There are 8 elements of primary health care (PHC). That listed below-

  1. E-Education concerning prevailing health problems and the methods of identifying,       preventing, and controlling them.
  2. L–  Locally endemic disease prevention and control.
  3. E– An expanded program of immunization against major infectious diseases.
  4. M– Maternal and child health care including family planning.
  5. E–   Essential drugs arrangement.
  6. N– Nutritional food supplement, an adequate supply of safe and basic nutrition.
  7. T–   Treatment of communicable and non-communicable diseases and the promotion of mental health.
  8. S–  Safe water and sanitation.

Extended Elements in the 21st Century:

  1. Expended options of immunizations.
  2. Reproductive health needs.
  3. Provision of essential technologies for health.
  4. Health promotion.
  5. Prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.
  6. Food safety and the provision of selected food supplements.

Principles of Primary Health Care (PHC):

Behind these elements lies a series of basic objectives that should be formulated in national policies to launch and sustain primary healthcare (PHC) as part of a comprehensive health system and coordination with other sectors.

  1. Improvement in the level of health care of the community.
  2. Favorable population growth structure.
  3. Reduction in the prevalence of preventable, communicable, and other diseases.
  4. Reduction in morbidity and mortality rates especially among infants and children.
  5. Extension of essential health services with priority given to the underserved sectors.
  6. Improvement in basic sanitation.
  7. Development of the capability of the community aimed at self-reliance.
  8. Maximizing the contribution of the other sectors for the social and economic development of the community.
  9. Equitable distribution of health care– according to this principle, primary care and other services to meet the main health problems in a community must be provided equally to all individuals irrespective of their gender, age, and caste, urban/rural, and social class.
  10. Community participation-comprehensive healthcare relies on adequate numbers and distribution of trained physicians, nurses, allied health professions, community health workers, and others working as a health team and supported at the local and referral levels.
  11. Multi-sectional approach-recognition that health cannot be improved by intervention within just the formal health sector; other sectors are equally important in promoting the health and self-reliance of communities.
  12. Use of appropriate technology- medical technology should be provided that accessible, affordable, feasible, and culturally acceptable to the community.

More questions related to this topic:

  1. What is the primary healthcare system?
  2. Discuss 8 essential elements of primary healthcare.
  3. Primary Healthcare Definition, Goal, Principles, and Strategies.
  4. Components of primary healthcare world health organization.
  5. Health education in primary healthcare a perspective.
  6. Pillars of primary healthcare.
  7. Primary healthcare concepts and principles.
  8. Principles and elements of primary healthcare.

52 thoughts on “Key Elements of Primary Health Care (PHC)”

  1. I am glad that primary health care is universally accessible to everyone. I would like to be able to heal my kinds whenever they get sick. It looks like from all of these elements that they are really reliable.

  2. egbe Christopher ojobo

    is like only me that the primary health care favour me because their is no favoritism and tribalism inside.

  3. It’s pretty great to learn about this primary health care. It’s amazing that it covers everything from education to safe water and sanitation. I’d be sure to read more into this and see if I’m applicable for one too. Thanks for the insightful read!

  4. Kazeem Ayankola

    Good one, especially on the ELEMENTS of primary health care. I am seeing that ACRONYM for the first term

  5. Aliddeki Joshua

    Nice presentation .
    but You have compared pillars to principals

    now where is the difference between the two?

  6. Md shaikot babu

    thanks for your sharing. you can add more element of phc are local disease control, safe water, EPI(expended programme on immunization) etc.



  8. Thanks alot but I would like you to give me the organized notes of all topics in their order of primary health care

  9. Angelo Agany Akol-Clinical Medicine

    Am very glad that primary health care is universal in health generally that provide services to community who are really get sick,it look like from all of these elements that they are really reliable.PHC is universal accessible to every one.

  10. I would really want to know Is the treatment of HIV/AIDs also put of Primary health care because now days in Uganda i hear victims are nolonger accessing the drugs thank u for this

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