Types of Diabetes Mellitus Disease with Nursing Intervention

Definition of Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

Diabetes mellitus disease is commonly referred to as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insufficiency secretion of insulin, less insulin action, or both.

Diabetes mellitus disease
Fig: Diabetes mellitus disease

Types of Diabetes Mellitus Disease or Classification of  Diabetes Mellitus:

There are three major types of diabetes which are discussed below:

1. Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Disease or Diabetes Mellitus Type 1:

Type- 1 Diabetes Mellitus is known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or Juvenile diabetes. Pancreases fail to produce enough beta cells or insulin.

2. Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Disease or Diabetes Mellitus Type 2:

Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus is known as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes (NIDDM), beta cells produce insufficient Insulin.

3. Gestational Diabetes Disease:

Insufficient production of insulin during pregnancy by the mother. This diabetes recovers following pregnancy, but they are at risk for developing type -2 diabetes mellitus later in life.

Sign and Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Disease or Diabetes Mellitus Symptoms:

Sign and symptoms of diabetes mellitus are the following:

For Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

  • Fast onset because of no insulin-producing,
  • Polyphagia ( increased appetite),
  • Polydipsia ( increased thirst),
  • Polyurea ( increased urination ),
  • Unexplained Weight loss,
  • Frequent genital infections ( Balanitis/ vaginitis),
  • Delay healing process,
  • Dry mouth.

For Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

  • Slow onset because of some insulin-producing,
  • Polyurea,
  • Polydipsia,
  • Candidal infection,
  • Delay healing process,
  • Blurred vision,
  • Lower extremities parenthesis,
  • Headache,
  • Extremely fatigue,
  • Dehydration.

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

There are different causes for diabetes mellitus which are in the below:

For Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

  • Type-1 diabetes mellitus is caused by the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas and when the beta cells are destroyed, the pancreas unable to produce insulin at all.
  • Viral infection of the pancreas.
  • Autoimmune disease.

For Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

  • Type-2 diabetes mellitus is caused by insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas, sometimes the amount of insulin is normal but the tissue is resistant to glucose,
  • Heredity,
  • Obesity,
  • Long time use of steroid, phenytoin, thiazide diuretics,
  • Thyroid hormone dysfunction,
  • Severe or recurrent pancreatitis,
  • Acromegaly,
  • Lack of physical activity,
  • Cancer of the pancreas.

Diagnosis for Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

Various diagnosis ways for diabetes mellitus are mentioned below:

For Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

  1. Fasting blood/ plasma glucose level (FBS) more than 126mg/dl ( 7.0mmol/L)
  2. 2 hours of breakfast plasma glucose level of more than 200mg/dl ( 11.1mmol/L)
  3. OGTT( Oral glucose tolerance test)
  4. Random plasma/ blood glucose ( RBS)

For Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

  1. Fasting blood/ plasma glucose level (FBS) more than 126mg/dl ( 7.0mmol/L),
  2. 2 hours of breakfast plasma glucose level more than 200mg/dl ( 11.1mmol/L),
  3. Random plasma/ blood glucose ( RBS),
  4. Hba1c,
  5. TSH ( thyroid-stimulating hormone test),
  6. FT3 and FT4.

Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus:

There are different treatment processes for diabetes mellitus. Those are in the following:

For Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

Treatment of type-1 involves diet and exercise.

  • Dietary Management and Physical Exercise:

Dietary management and exercise are typically the first steps toward reducing blood sugar levels. Dietary carbohydrate and activity must be co-ordinated with insulin action so that-

  1. Insulin is available for optimal metabolism when the food that was eaten is absorbed.
  2. Food is available while insulin is acting to prevent hypoglycaemic reactions.
  • Insulin therapy:
  1. Rapid-acting (Aspart, Lispro, Glucolize),
  2. Short-acting (Regular).
  • Intsermediate acting (Neutral protamine hegadorn)
  1. Long acting (Luntus, Levemir).
  2. Continuous subcutaneous insulin ( CSII) –Rapid-acting insulin infused continuously 24 hours through an insulin pump, at 1 or more basal rates.

For Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

Type-2 DM is treated first with weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these first measures fail to control hyperglycemia, oral medications are to be used.

The oral medications are-

  1. Sulfonylureas:

which stimulates the release of insulin from pancreatic islets, reduces blood glucose. Those are chlorpropamide, glyburide, glipizide.

  1. Meglitinides:

Stimulate a rapid or short-lived release of insulin from the pancreas such as repaglinide, metformin.

  • Alpha-glucosidase
  1. Glinides.
  2. Insulin secretagogues.
  3. Incretines.
  • Thiazolidione
  • Boguanide

Prevention for Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

There are different ways of preventing diabetes mellitus which are mentioned below:

  • Maintain a better healthy lifestyle.
  • Eat a healthy diet.
  • Control of body weight.
  • Turn off the television and computer and get more physical activity.
  • Take whole grains and whole grains products over highly processed carbohydrates.
  • Avoid sugary drinks and choose water, coffee, or tea instead.
  • Eat good fats instead of bad fats.
  • Limit red meat and choose nuts, whole grains, poultry, or fish.
  • No smoking.
  • Regular monitor of blood glucose.
  • Taking care of body especially eye and food.
  • Check feet to make sure there is no nerve damage or interruption of blood flow.
  • Consult with a physician at least once a month when the age for more than 45 years.
  • Monitor and control blood pressure.

Complications of Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

Various complications of diabetes mellitus are in the below:

  • Hyperglycaemia,
  • Hypoglycemia,
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis,
  • Hyper-osmolar hyperglycaemic non-kenotic syndrome (HONK syndrome),
  • Cardiovascular disease,
  • Cerebro-vascular disease,
  • Diabetic neuropathy,
  • Diabetic nephropathy male erectile dysfunction.

Nursing Intervention for Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

There are different types of nursing intervention for diabetes mellitus which are mentioned in the following:

  • Monitor and control blood sugar.
  • Monitor body weight daily.
  • Provide a diabetic diet and determine the diet and eating patterns and compare with blood glucose.
  • Collaboration with dieticians about patient diet.
  • Administer medications and insulin properly.
  • Collaboration examination of blood sugar with insulin therapy.
  • Observe the signs of hypoglycemia such as changes in the level of consciousness; skin moist/cold, rapid pulse, hunger, sensitivity to stimuli, anxiety, and headache.
  • Teach patient and family about hypoglycemia and hypoglycaemic sign symptoms.
  • Observe for the signs of infection and inflammation: fever, flushed appearance, wound drainage, purulent sputum, and cloudy urine.
  • Promote and teach good hand hygiene.
  • Provide feet care (observe and investigate reports of hyperesthesia, pain, or sensory loss in the feet or legs) and teach how to care for feet.
  • Recommended regular ophthalmologic examination.
  • Investigate and check for ulcers, reddened areas, pressure points, loss of pedal pulses.
  • Provide skincare: keep skin dry, gently massage bony areas.
  • Keep bed sheets dry, tidy, and wrinkle-free.
  • Careful wound care.
  • Maintain asepsis technique during IV insertion, administering of medications, check any swelling and redness, and change IV sites as indicated.
  • Provide cognitive and emotional support to the patient.
  • Teach about home care and control of blood sugar.
  • Monitor laboratory values: blood glucose, serum osmolality, Hb/Hct, BUN/Cr.
  • Carry out the prescribed regimen for correcting DKA as indicated.
  • Assist the patient to develop coping strategies and discuss with the patient the need for activity and help inactivity in daily living.
  • Encourage the patient to do some exercises to control blood sugar.
  • Treat hypoglycaemic reactions promptly by giving sugar, juice, hard candy, honey, or IV dextrose.
  • Keep accurate records of vital signs, fluid intake, urine output, and caloric intake.
  • Check sign symptoms of complication diabetic effects.
  • Observe for signs of the urinary tract and vaginal infections, and monitor urinary protein and early signs of nephropathy.

More questions related to this topic:

  1. Diabetes Mellitus: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatments.
  2. Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview.
  3. Diabetes Mellitus Definition.
  4. What Type of Disease is Diabetes?
  5. What are the Two Major Types of Diabetes Mellitus?
  6. What are the Symptoms of a Diabetic Person?
  7. Why Do People Get Diabetes?
  8. What is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?
  9. What is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

1 thought on “Types of Diabetes Mellitus Disease with Nursing Intervention”

  1. Angin Elle Lapun

    My wife diabetes symptom was diabetic neuropathy. We didn’t know she was diabetic until we went to my doctor complaining about constant foot pain. After a multitude of tests for everything from rheumatoid arthritis to muscular dystrophy, an emergency room physician checked her blood sugar.After reviewing a letter written by my doctor, where I read he had prescribed Celebrex for her due to pain of Arthritis which had really messed her neck, back and knees, I found that one of the side effects of Celebrex is Diabetes, my wife was able to effectively cure herbal condition multivitamincare org It is too much for a patient to endure such as they slowly begin to pass away if the right medication is not taken organic herbal treatment.Having a positive mind is a powerful tool .My prayers goes out to diabetes patients and their care givers.

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