Definition of Endocarditis Disease:
Endocarditis disease is an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart chambers and heart valves (Endocardium).
Causes of Endocarditis Disease or Endocarditis Causes:
There are different causes of endocarditis, which are mentioned below:
- Infection (Bacterial, fungal, Viral),
- History of endocarditis,
- Implanted heart device such as a pacemaker, Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator),
- Central venous catheter,
- Congenital heart defect,
- Abnormal or damaged heart valves,
- Artificial heart valve,
- Certain dental procedures,
- Contaminated needles used to inject the illegal drug,
- Rheumatic fever,
- Immune suppression,
- Prolonged I/V antibiotic therapy.
Sign and Symptoms of Endocarditis Disease or Endocarditis Symptoms:
Various sign and symptoms of endocarditis are the following:
- Flue like symptoms such as fever chills, sweating at night,
- Fatigue, weakness, and muscles ache,
- Shortness of breath,
- Persistent cough,
- Weight loss,
- Blood in urine,
- Petechiae (tiny red spots on the skin, eye, and inside of mouth),
- Bleeding under the nails,
- Red, painless skin spots on the palms and soles,
- Swelling of feet and legs,
- Tenderness in the spleen.
Test and Diagnosis for Endocarditis Disease:
There are different diagnosis types for endothermic, which are in the below:
- Medical history and physical exam (Heart murmur, enlarged spleen, Bleeding under nails),
- Blood culture, CBC, CRP,
- Chest X-Ray,
- CT scan or MRI of the chest.
Treatment for Endocarditis Disease:
Various treatments for Endocarditis are mentioned below:
- Surgery (Repair or replacement of a heart valve).
Complications of Endocarditis Disease or Endocarditis Complications:
There are different complications of endocarditis, those are in the below:
- Heart failure,
- Abbess in the heart/brain,
- Spread infection to lung, brain, kidney, liver,
- Heart rhythm problems.
Nursing Interventions for Endocarditis Disease:
Various nursing intervention for endocarditis are mentioned below:
- Monitor vital signs hourly if Patient condition unstable.
- Monitor central venous pressure if the central line present.
- Monitor intake output hourly.
- Monitor weight daily.
- Assess neurological status hourly.
- Keep skin warm and regularly monitor nails for color and capillary refill.
- Provide O2 supplement and keep saturation ˃90%.
- Ensure a calm and quiet environment with adequate rest.
- Draw blood for cultures to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy.
- Administer antibiotics and antipyretic timely as indicated.
- Monitor the patient’s renal status including blood urea nitrogen levels, creatinine clearance levels, and urine output.
- Carefully monitoring signs and symptoms of complications and report it such as cerebral vascular complications, and valve stenosis or regurgitation.
- Provide psychological support and reduce anxiety.
- Prepare Patient for surgery if indicated such as valve replacement.
- After surgery monitor Patient temperature, fever may be present for weeks.
- Provide education teaching needs antibiotics after dental procedures, childbirth, genitourinary, GI, or gynecologic procedures.
- If the patient received surgical treatment, provide post-surgical care and instruction.
- After surgery, monitor the patient’s temperature; a fever may be present for weeks.
- Instruct patient and family about activity restrictions, medications, and signs and symptoms of infection.
- What Does Endocarditis Mean?
- What is Endocarditis?
- Endocarditis Guidelines.
- Endocarditis Criteria.
Maria Khatun Mona is a Founder and Editor of Nursing Exercise Blog. She is a Nursing and Midwifery Expert. Currently she is working as a Registered Nurse at Evercare Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. She has great passion in writing different articles on Nursing and Midwifery. Mail her at “[email protected]”