Malarial Parasites: Types, Classification and Life Cycle
What is Malaria Disease?
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches.
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of female anopheles mosquito, characterized by-fever, anemia, splenomegaly etc.
Classification or Types of Malarial Parasites or Plasmodium:
It includes the following:
- Plasmodium vivax,
- Plasmodium falciparum,
- Plasmodium ovale,
- Plasmodium malariae.
Name of Species of Malarial Parasites Found in Bangladesh:
The following 2 species of plasmodium are more common in Bangladesh–
- Plasmodium vivax: common in plain land.
- Plasmodium falciparum: common in hilly areas.
Name of Clinical Types of Malaria and the Causative Plasmodium Parasites:
Clinical types of malaria
Benign tertian malaria
Malignant tertian malaria
Difference between Plasmodium Falciparum and Plasmodium Vivax:
Duration of asexual phase in man
36-48 hrs, Usually 48 hrs
Duration of sporogony in mosquito
22-23 days at 20°C
10-12 days at 27°C
30 days at 17.5°C
10 days at 25-30°C
Duration of intrahepatic phase
Duration of Schizogony
Forms found in the smear
Rings and banana shaped gametocytes
Trophozoites, schizonts and gametocytes
Level of usual maximum parasitemia
May exceed 200,000/µl, commonly 50,000/µl.
Up to 30,000/µl of blood
Red cell preference
Younger cells (but can invade cells of all ages)
Reticulocytes and red cells up to 2 weeks old
Parasitized Red cells
Not enlarge. Coarse stippling (Maurer’s clefts)
Enlarged, pale. Fine stippling (Schuffner’s dots)
Black and Dark Brown
Yellow or Golden Brown
Ability to cause relapses
Pigment in developing trophozoites
Coarse, black, few clumps
Fine, Light brown, scattered
Life Cycle of Malarial Parasites:
Life cycle of malaria parasites: – the cycle is completed by two cycles,
- Human cycle,
- Mosquito cycle.
Schizogony or asexual human cycle:-
Mosquito bite sporozoite enters → exoerythrocytic cycle in hepatocytes → merozoites → enter red cell→ ring trophozoite → mature trophozoite → immature schizont → mature schizont → merozoites → enter red cells → microgametocyte and macro gametocyte → the cycle is repeated.
Sporogony or sexual mosquito cycle:-
Mosquito bite infected human and takes blood → fertilization of microgamete and macrogamete → zygote → oocyst → sporozoites in oocyst → sporozoites in salivaof mosquito → the cycle is repeated.
More questions related to this article:
- What is malaria?
- What do you mean by malaria?
- Name the malarial parasites.
- What is the classification of Plasmodium?
- What are the different types of Plasmodium?
- Mention the classification of malarial parasites.
- What are the different types of malarial parasites?
- Name the species of malarial parasites found in Bangladesh.
- Which species of plasmodium are common in Bangladesh?
- Name the clinical types of malaria and the causative plasmodium parasites.
- Write down the difference between Plasmodium Falciparum and Plasmodium Vivax.
- Write down the life cycle of malaria parasite.
Maria Khatun Mona is a Founder and Editor of Nursing Exercise Blog. She is a Nursing and Midwifery Expert. Currently she is working as a Registered Nurse at Evercare Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. She has great passion in writing different articles on Nursing and Midwifery. Mail her at “[email protected]”