Newborn Baby: Nursing Care, Resuscitation Procedure, Nutrition and Feeding
Who is Newborn?
According to World Health Organization (WHO), a newborn infant, or neonate, is a child under 28 days of age. During these first 28 days of life, the child is at highest risk of dying. It is thus crucial that appropriate feeding and care are provided during this period, both to improve the child’s chances of survival and to lay the foundations for a healthy life.
Nursing Care of Newborn Baby:
1. Immediate care after birth:
- Dry and stimulates,
- Assessing cardiovascular function,
- Assess breathing, colour and heart rate,
- Decision of resuscitation if needed,
- Keep warm,
- Tie and cut cord,
- Start breast feeding,
- Stabilizing the body temperature,
- Assessing vital signs,
- Prevention of hemorrhage,
- Prophylactic eye care.
Apgar score: This evaluation is done one minute after birth, and then again five minutes later. The Apgar score is based on the following five evaluations:
- Heart rate,
- Muscle tone,
- Color Respiratory effort,
- Reflect irritability (response to physical stimulus).
2. Routine nursing care:
- Promotion of safety.
- Facilitation of attachment.
- Prevention of infection.
- Routine assessment and care, bath
- Positioning and holding the infant, cord care etc.
- Prophylactic eye ointment is administered to avoid eye infections.
- Vitamin K is giving to avoid bleeding due to vitamin K deficiency. Vaccination for Hepatitis B.
- Care to prevent infection of the umbilical cord.
- Monitoring for hyperbilirubinemia (too much bilirubin in the blood which leads to jaundice, a yellowish coloring of skin and eyes).
- Monitoring for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar levels).
Newborn Baby Nutrition and Feeding:
It is universally accepted that human breast milk is the best source of nutrition for newborn babies and infants. Breastfeeding also has many non-nutritive benefits that lead to the best health and development of the baby. According to the World Health Organization, “exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months is the optimal way of feeding infants.
1. Preparation of breast feeding:
- Preparing the breast,
- Other preparation for breast feeding,
- Frequency and length of feeding,
- Learn about the breast feeding process,
- Know about body for breast feeding,
- Set up support.
2. Feeding techniques:
- Hand position,
- Sucking patterns,
- Initiating breastfeeding,
- Removal from the breast,
- Next feeding,
How to Perform Resuscitation Procedure to the Newborn?
Perform resuscitation procedure to the newborn:
Aim: For the neonates who fail to establish spontaneous respiration after complete delivery.
Principles of resuscitation:
1. Prevention of hypothermia: by
- Wrapping with warm cloths,
- Skin to skin contact,
- Hot water bottle.
2. Cleaning of airways: by
- Ensuring proper positioning of the newborn,
- Suction in oro-nasopharynx.
3. Initiation of breathing: by
- Tactile stimulation,
- Endotracheal intubation.
4. Maintenance of circulation: By cardiac massage.
5. Necessary drugs:
- Naloxone if mother is given Pethidine 3-4 hours before delivery.
- Sodi-bicarb to combat acidosis.
6. Equipment for resuscitation:
- Dry, sterile towel, cotton for wraping and cleaning,
- An infant umbo bag and mask,
- Gauge piece,
- Roller bandage,
- Suction apparatus,
- Supply of oxygen,
- Radiant heat source.
Maria Khatun Mona is a Founder and Editor of Nursing Exercise Blog. She is a Nursing and Midwifery Expert. Currently she is working as a Registered Nurse at Evercare Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. She has great passion in writing different articles on Nursing and Midwifery. Mail her at “[email protected]”