Pulmonary Embolism Disease with Causes and Nursing Intervention

Definition of Pulmonary Embolism Disease:

Pulmonary embolism disease is a sudden blockage of the pulmonary arteries or one of its branches usually by a blood clot that travels to the lung from a vein in the leg.

Pulmonary embolism disease
Pulmonary embolism disease

Causes of Pulmonary Embolism Disease:

There are different types of causes for pulmonary embolism disease, those are mentioned below:

  1. A blood clot that forms in a deep vein in the leg,
  2. Small masses of infections material,
  3. Air bubbles,
  4. Fat droplet originate from narrow of a broken long bone,
  5. Part of a tumor,
  6. Amniotic fluid.

Risk Factors for Pulmonary Embolism Disease:

Various types of risk factors for pulmonary embolism disease are the following:

  1. Hospitalization or prolonged bed rest,
  2. Long time travel (Sitting in an Airplane, Train, etc.),
  3. Smoking,
  4. Major surgery (particularly involving the abdomen, pelvis, hip, or legs),
  5. Heart disease,
  6. Heart attack/failure,
  7. Lung disease,
  8. Previous history of DVT or PE,
  9. Inherited clotting disorders,
  10. Age (risk increases as age increases),
  11. A catheter located in a central vein,
  12. inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis),
  13. Use of birth control pill,
  14. Overweight,
  15. Cancer,
  16. Pregnancy (Postpartum period up to 6-8 weeks after delivery),
  17. Leg paralysis,
  18. Varicose vein,
  19. Trauma to the vessel wall.

Sign and Symptoms for Pulmonary Embolism Disease:

There are different types of sign and symptoms for pulmonary embolism, those are mentioned below:

  1. Sudden shortness of breath,
  2. Sudden sharp chest pain,
  3. Cough with blood or mucus,
  4. Excessive sweating,
  5. Rapid or irregular heart rate,
  6. Palpitations,
  7. Dizziness or lightheadedness,
  8. Fainting,
  9. Cyanosis (Clammy or discolored skin) or mucous membranes,
  10. Sign of circulatory collapse (shock),
  11. Restlessness and anxiety,
  12. Dyspnea.

Test and Diagnosis for Pulmonary Embolism Disease:

Different ways of test and diagnosis systems for pulmonary embolism heart disease are given in the following:

  1. Chest X-Ray,
  2. Blood test (D-Dimer, ABG, Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), Troponin-1),
  3. Ultrasound of chest,
  4. CT Scan of the chest,
  5. CT pulmonary angiogram,
  6. MRI,
  7. Echocardiogram (Echo),
  8. Electrocardiogram (ECG),
  9. Duplex ultrasound to see the structure of your leg veins,
  10. Venography.

Treatment for Pulmonary Embolism Disease:

There are different ways of treatment for pulmonary embolism, which are mentioned below:

1. Anticoagulants (Heparin, Warfarin):

Prevent forming new clots and prevent existing blood clots to grow larger.

2. Thrombolytic (Streptokinase or tissue-type plasminogen activators (t-PA) Reteplase, Urokinase interfere with the action of thrombin):

To dissolve or break up a blood clot quickly.

3. Embolectomy:

A Surgery help to remove the blood clot from the lung.

4. Vana cava filter:

Set a filter into the inferior vena cava. It helps to prevent blood clots reach the lungs.

Prevention for Pulmonary Embolism Disease:

Various ways to prevent ions for pulmonary embolism are given below:

  1. Daily use of anticoagulant medications.
  2. Wear compression stocking or use compression devices while hospitalization.
  3. Early ambulation or mobilization after surgery.
  4. Perform simple leg exercises and a short walk.
  5. During travel the following instructions should be maintained:
  • Take a break from sitting and walk every couple of hours during travel.
  • Flex ankles every 15 to 30 minutes.
  • Do not sit with legs crossed at the knees for a long time.
  • Wear flight socks.
  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Do not drink alcohol or take sleeping pills.

Nursing Intervention for Pulmonary Embolism Disease:

There are different types of nursing interventions for pulmonary embolism; those are mentioned in the following:

  1. Maintain client on bed rest strictly in a semi-flowers position and passive range of motion.
  2. Immobilize the patient and keep sit the head of the bed, but do not sit up.
  3. Keep elevated of the leg to promote a venous return to the heart.
  4. Check ABGs to evaluate the need for mechanical ventilation.
  5. Provide oxygen therapy and maintain ventilation as ordered.
  6. Establish an Intravenous line for fluids and drugs.
  7. Monitor vital signs continuously and record them carefully.
  8. Monitor and record intake and output to detect fluid overload and renal perfusion.
  9. Ensure a minimum intravenous fluid intake of 2500ml per day for proper hydration unless contraindicated to prevent increase blood viscosity.
  10. Administer heparin to reduce the risk of additional clotting.
  11. Carefully calculating heparin dose and use an infusion pump.
  12. Monitor laboratory test results such as partial thermoplastic time (PTT) to need of adjustment dose or stop heparin.
  13. Carefully monitoring of any complications such as hypotension, bleeding, desaturation, etc.
  14. Check any sign of hypotension and start inotropes as ordered and check ABP (Arterial blood pressure).
  15. Administer morphine to slow respiration and manage pain.
  16. Ensure intake of vitamin-k rich food including green, leafy vegetables to prevent bleeding.
  17. Advise the patient to take care when brushing teeth in order to reduce the risk of bleeding gums.
  18. Instruct patient to keep nasal mucosa hydrated and moist.
  19. Provide adequate knowledge to the patient pertaining to warfarin therapy.
  20. Check any sign of an excessive bleeding complication of warfarin therapy.
  21. Be aware of the signs of excessive bleeding, such as frequent and bilateral epitasis, hematuria (blood in the urine), and deep tissue bruising (Purpura).

More questions related to this topic:

  1. Pulmonary Embolism: Symptoms and Treatment.
  2. Pulmonary Embolism: Take Measures to Lower Your Risk.
  3. Pulmonary Embolism: Symptoms, Signs, Causes & Treatment.
  4. Pulmonary Embolism: Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis.
  5. Pulmonary Embolism-Topic Overview.
  6. What is a Clot in the Lung?
  7. How do They Treat a Blood Clot in the Lung?
  8. What is an Acute Pulmonary Embolism?
  9. Pulmonary Embolism Heart Disease.
  10. Pulmonary Embolism Cancer.
  11. Pulmonary Embolism Diabetes.
  12. Pulmonary Hypertension Disease.
  13. Pulmonary Embolism Definition.
  14. Pulmonary Embolism Causes.
  15. Pulmonary Embolism Symptoms.
  16. Pulmonary Embolism Treatment.

1 thought on “Pulmonary Embolism Disease with Causes and Nursing Intervention”

  1. I’ve recently been diagnosed with multiple pulmonary embolism and and is place on bedrest and clexane injections which I administer myself. My thing is, if this medication is only to prevent new clots and stop these from growing how do we get rid of the ones I have now. How do those disappear or disintegrate and make me healthy again???

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