Anaemia or Anemia: Symptoms, Causes and Complications
Definition of Anemia:
Anemia is a clinical condition characterized by pale coloration of the skin and mucous membrane due to qualitative and quantitative deficiency of hemoglobin below the lower limit in the peripheral blood in respect of age and sex.
Anemia is decreased in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Normal Hb Level:
- Male- 13-18 gm /dl,
- Female -11.5-1 6.5 gm / dl,
- Children -16- 19 gm/ dl,
- At birth- 18-20 gm/ dl.
Common Site of Anaemia or Anemia:
These are the common sites where anaemia is seen:
- Lower palpebral conjunctiva,
- Dorsum of the tongue,
- Buccal mucous membrane,
- Palm of the hand,
- Nail bed,
- Sole of the feet,
- Whole skin.
Sign and Symptoms of Anaemia or Anemia:
Clinical Features of Anaemia or Anemia:
Symptoms of Anaemia or Anemia:
- Breathlessness on exertion,
- Dimness of vision.
Signs of Anaemia or Anemia (According to severity):
- Pallor – Skin. Palm of hand, mucous membrane. Lower palpebral conjunctiva,
- Cardiac dilatation,
- Systolic flow murmur,
- Ankle oedema.
Common Causes of Anaemia or Anemia of Children:
1. Increased destruction of RBCs (Hemolytic anemia):
- Sickle cell disease.
2. Decreased RBC production (Bone marrow depression):
- Primary: Hypoplasia or aplasia.
- Secondary: Irradiation, infections, chronic illness etc.
3. Impaired of RBC production:
- Iron deficiency anemia,
- Folic acid deficiency anemia,
- Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia.
4. Increased blood loss (Hemorrhagic anemia):
- Acute: Trauma, epistaxis, hemorrhagic disease of newborn and scurvy.
- Chronic: Hookworm infestation, bleeding piles, chronic dysentery.
Complications of Anemia or Anaemia:
It includes the following:
- Circulatory collapse and shock,
- Cardiac enlargement,
- Systemic or local infections,
- Growth retardation,
- Mental retardation or sluggishness with decreased attention span and intelligence,
- Delayed puberty.
What is the cutoff point for hemoglobin level for children according to WHO?
World Health Organization (WHO) proposed the cut-off points of Hb level for different age groups for the diagnosis of anemia –
1. Children 6 months to 6 years-11 g/dl
2. Children 6ycars to 14ycars- 12 g/dl
3. Above 14 years
- Male-13 g/dl
- Female-12 g/dl
More questions related to this article:
- What is anemia?
- Define anaemia.
- What do you mean by anaemia?
- Write down the common site of see anaemia.
- What are the areas you may look anemia?
- Where will you look for anemia?
- Write down the clinical features of anaemia?
- What are the sign and symptoms of anaemia?
- What are the common causes of anaemia in Bangladesh?
- Why iron deficiency anaemia is common in our country?
- What are the common causes of anaemia of children?
- What are the complications of anemia?
- What is the cutoff point for hemoglobin level for children according to WHO?
Maria Khatun Mona is a Founder and Editor of Nursing Exercise Blog. She is a Nursing and Midwifery Expert. Currently she is working as a Registered Nurse at Evercare Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. She has great passion in writing different articles on Nursing and Midwifery. Mail her at “[email protected]”