Risk Factors and Complication of HIV or AIDS Infection

Risk Factors Responsible for Spreading HIV/AIDS:

Anyone who is sexually active risks exposure to a sexually transmitted infection (HIV or AIDS) to some degree. Factors that may increase that risk include:

  1. Having unprotected sex: Vaginal or anal penetration by an infected partner who isn’t wearing a latex condom significantly increases the risk of getting an STI. Improper or inconsistent use of condoms can also increase your risk.
  2. Having sexual contact with multiple partners: The more people you have sexual contact with, the greater your risk. This is true for concurrent partners as well as monogamous consecutive relationships.
  3. Having a history of STIs: Having one STI makes it much easier for another STI to take hold.
  4. Anyone forced to have sexual intercourse or sexual activity: Dealing with rape or assault can be difficult, but it’s important to be seen as soon as possible. Screening, treatment and emotional support can be offered.
  5. Abusing alcohol or using recreational drugs: Substance abuse can inhibit your judgment, making you more willing to participate in risky behaviors.
  6. Injecting drugs: Needle sharing spreads many serious infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
  7. Being young: Half of STIs occur in people between the ages of 15 and 24.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
Fig: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

Complication of HIV or AIDS Infection:

1. Complications of the Central Nervous System:

  • Cerebral toxoplasmosis,
  • Cryptococcal meningo encephalitis (or cryptococcoma),
  • Viral meningoencephalitis,
  • Cytomegalovirus,
  • Herpes simplex virus,
  • Varicella zoster virus,
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,
  • Neurosyphilis,
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma.

2. Complications of the Gastrointestinal System:

  • Cytomegalovirus infection,
  • HIV-induced enteropathy (or AIDS enteropathy),
  • Intestinal malignancies (e.g., non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, anal squamous cell carcinoma),
  • Fat malabsorption (pancreatic exocrine insufficiency),
  • Proctitis and anorectal ulcers from sexually transmitted infections,
  • Protease inhibitor-related adverse effects.

3. Other complication:

  • Head and neck: Gingivitis, dental and salivary gland disease,
  • Cardiovascular: Cardiovascular disease, endocarditis,
  • Pulmonary: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer (including Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma),
  • Musculoskeletal: Osteopenia, osteoporosis, osteonecrosis,
  • Hematologic or oncologic: Lymphoma, multiple myeloma,
  • Dermatologic: Papulosquamous disorders (e.g., eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis); molluscum contagiosum; Kaposi sarcoma.

Mode or Route of Transmission of AIDS:

Infection with HIV essentially requires exchange of semen, vaginal or other body secretion, milk, or blood products infected by the virus:

1. Sexual transmission:

  • Route: Anal, Vaginal, Oral sex can spread AIDS.
  • Mode: The main mode of transmission via heterosexual routes (over 75% of global cases).

2. Contaminated blood and blood products: By transfusion of:

  • Whole blood cells,
  • Platelets,
  • Factor 5 and 9 derived from human plasma.

3. Maternal- fetal and mother to child transmission:

Infected mother to child transmission:

  • Fetus through the placenta,
  • Infant during delivery or by breast feeding.

4. Contaminated needles:

  • Intravenous drug users,
  • Needle sticks injuries,
  • Injections.

5. Organ and tissue donation:

  • Bone marrow,
  • Kidney,
  • Skin,
  • Corneas,
  • Semen.

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