Water Soluble Vitamin Deficiency Disorder | Vitamin C and D Deficiency Prevention

Vitamin C and D Deficiency: Symptoms, Effects and Prevention

Water Soluble Vitamin Deficiency Disorders:

1. Vitamin B complex:

a. Vitamin B1 (thiamine): Deficiency disorder: Beriberi

b. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin): Deficiency disorder: Oral ulcer

c. Vitamin B3; (niacin): Deficiency disorder: Pellagra, it means rough skin

d. Vitamin B5 (pantothanic acid): Deficiency disorder: Fatty liver

e. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine): Deficiency disorder: Neurological disorder

f. Folic acid: Deficiency disorder:

  • Megloblastic anemia,
  • Deficiency of maternal folic acid may result in neural tube defect of the fetus.

g. Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin):Deficiency disorder:

  • Demyelination of nerve fibers,
  • Pernicious anemia or megaloblastic anemia.

2. Deficiency disorder of vitamin C:

  • Scurvy.
Vitamin C and D deficiency
Fig: Vitamin C and D deficiency

Effects of Vitamin D Deficiency Disorder:

Rickets is a disease of young children (6 months to 2 years) characterized by:

  • Growth failure,
  • Bone deformity,
  • Muscular hypotonia,
  • Tetany,
  • Convulsion due to hypocalcemia.

There is an elevated concentration of alkaline phosphatase in the serum.

Osteomalacia in adults:

In adult vitamin D deficiency may result in osteomalacia which occurs mainly in women, especially during pregnancy and lactation when requirements of vitamin D are increase.

Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency:

It includes-

  • Educating parents to expose their children regularly to sunshine.
  • Periodic dosing (prophylaxis) of young children with vitamin D; and
  • Fortification of foods, especially milk.

Clinical Features of Scurvy or Vitamin C Deficiency in Infants and Young Children:

Most frequent symptoms-

  • General irritability,
  • Tenderness of the limbs, especially of the legs,
  • Pseudo paralysis, usually involving the lower extremities,
  • Involvement of costochondral junctions: changes such as beading of ribs,
  • Haemorrhage around erupting teeth (in infants without teeth gums appear normal),
  • Anaemia.

Possible symptoms-

  • Anorexia,
  • Low-grade fever,
  • Mild diarrhoea, sometimes bloody,
  • Petechial haemorrhages in the skin.

Prevention of Scurvy or Vitamin C Deficiency in Children:

The main approaches to preventing the onset of scurvy in emergency situations affecting large populations are as follows:

  1. Providing food rations containing adequate amounts of vitamin C by increasing the variety of the food basket and regularly including fresh fruit and vegetables.
  2. Providing sufficient food in the ration to allow refugees to sell the surplus for other purposes.
  3. It has been found that refugees with the highest value of rations received did, in fact, consume the greatest amounts of fruit and vegetables (Hansch, 1992).
  4. Fortifying current relief commodities with vitamin C, e.g. providing fortified blended cereallegume food in the general ration in sufficient amounts to cover vitamin C requirements.
  5. Providing vitamin C supplements in the form of tablets at least weekly.
  6. Encouraging and facilitating, where feasible, cultivation by refugees of fruits and vegetables in home gardens.

More questions related to this article:

  • What are the deficiency disorders of water soluble vitamins?
  • What are the effects of vitamin D deficiency disorder?
  • Mention the deficiency diseases of vitamin D deficiency.
  • How will you prevent vitamin D deficiency?
  • What are the preventions of vitamin D deficiency?
  • What are the clinical features of scurvy?
  • What are the clinical manifestations of scurvy in infants and young children?
  • How will you prevent scurvy in children?
  • How will you prevent vitamin C deficiency in children?
  • What are the sign and symptoms of vitamin C deficiency in children?

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