Four Basic Needs or Rights of Newborn Baby At Birth:
There are four basic needs of all newborn baby at the time of birth and for the first few weeks of life. These are:
- To be warm,
- To breathe normally,
- To be protected (prevent infection),
- To be feed.
All the above basic rights of a newborn baby have explained in the below:
A. Newborn’s 1st right; To be warm:
Keeping a newborn baby in warm after delivery by:
- Provide a warm room and draught free room for delivery at 25-28°c.
- Immediately dry baby with clean, warm & dry cloth after birth.
- Put the baby on the mother’s abdomen between the mother’s breasts.
- Cover the mother and baby with a warm and dry cloth & encourage breast feeding as soon as possible after birth. If separation of mother and baby is necessary for any medical care, do the following:
- Wrap the baby in a clean dry warm cloth and place under a radiant warmer.
- If warmer is not available, ensure warmth by wrapping the baby in a clean dry warm cloth and cover with a blanket.
- Ensure baby’s head, hands and feet are covered.
- Delay the first bath to beyond first 24hour period.
- Skin to skin contact can restart as soon as mother and baby do not need any further medical care.
B. Newborn’s 2nd right; To breathe normally:
- Breath normally is one of the baby’s immediate and basic needs. A baby can die or suffer from hypoxic injury very quickly if breathing does not start soon after birth.
- A baby is born and assess baby’s breathing. When the umbilical cord is cut, the baby needs to obtain oxygenation through the lungs.
- Ifa baby is breathing normally, the air entry on both sides of the chest should be equal and the respiratory rate would be 40-60 per minute.
- If a baby is not breathing normally and present any problem in initiating breathing after birth. The baby needs immediate help to support their respiration by oxygen therapy.
C. Newborn’s 3rd right; To be protected:
The baby is protected from infection at birth by:
Immediate umbilical cord care –
- Clamp and cut cord with a sterile instrument.
- Tie the cord between 2 to 3cms from the base and cut the cord.
- Observe for oozing blood. If blood oozes, place a second tie (stump) between the skin and first tie.
- Leave stump uncovered and dry.
- Apply antiseptic solution on the umbilical area.
Care of the eyes –
- The eyes should be cleaned with sterile normal saline swabs, using one swab for each eye. Clean from medial to lateral side.
- Do not apply any medication to eyes.
D. Newborn’s 4th right; To be feed:
Baby should be breastfeed within I hour after birth. Initiating breastfeeding after normal birth are-
- Tell the mother to help the baby to her breast within the first hour.
- Cheek position and attachment are correct at the first feed.
- Offer to help the mother at any time.
- The baby’s first feed of colostrum’s is very important because it helps to protect against infections.
- The baby can feed from mother whether she is lying down or sitting. Baby & mother must be comfortable.
- Do not give artificial teats or pre-lacteal feeds to the newborn.
Maria Khatun Mona is a Founder and Editor of Nursing Exercise Blog. She is a Nursing and Midwifery Expert. Currently she is working as a Registered Nurse at Evercare Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. She has great passion in writing different articles on Nursing and Midwifery. Mail her at “[email protected]”