Common Causes and Types of Bleeding Disorder in Children

Types and Common Causes of Bleeding Disorders in Children

Hematology and Blood Disorders of Children:

Blood is the life-maintaining fluid that circulates through the body’s heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. It carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

Because the functions of blood are many and complex, there are many disorders that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. These conditions include anemias, bleeding disorders, as well as cancers of the blood.

Hematology is the scientific study of blood and blood-forming tissues. A hematologist is a physician who specializes in the functions and disorders of the blood.

Bleeding disorders in children
Fig: Bleeding disorders in children

Common Causes of Bleeding Disorder in Children:

Bleeding disorder may be congenital or acquired and may be caused by dysfunction in any phase of hemostasis. Hemostasis involves:

  • Local reactions of blood vessels.
  • Multiple activities of the platelets.
  • Interaction of coagulation factors.
  • Inhibitors and fibrinolytic proteins circulating in the blood.

Types of Blood or Bleeding Disorders in Children:

1. Red blood cell and iron disorders:

It includes-

  • Red blood cell disorders overview,
  • Anemia overview,
  • Sickle cell disease,
  • Thalassemia,
  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn,
  • Hemolytic anemia,
  • Spherocytosis,
  • Iron deficiency anemia,
  • Hemochromatosis Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (RIDA),
  • Megaloblastic anemia (including pernicious anemia).

2. White blood cell disorders:

It includes-

  • White blood cell disorders overview,
  • Severe congenital neutropenia (Kostmann syndrome),
  • Leukocyte adhesion deficiency,
  • Myeloperoxidase deficiency.

3. Bone marrow failure syndromes:

It includes-

  • Aplastic anemia,
  • Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia,
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS),
  • Schwachman-Diamond syndrome,
  • Thrombocytopenia absent radius.

4. Bleeding disorders:

It includes-

  • Hemophilia,
  • von Willebrand disease,
  • Platelet function disorders,
  • Thrombocytopenia,
  • Hypofibrinogenemia and dysfibrinogenemia.

5. Thrombosis and anticoagulation disorders:

It includes-

  • Thrombosis,
  • Factor V Leiden,
  • Prothrombin gene mutation,
  • Protein C deficiency,
  • Protein S deficiency,
  • Antithrombin deficiency,
  • Stroke.

6. Autoimmune blood cell disorders:

It includes-

  • Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP),
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia,
  • Evans syndrome.

7. Other blood disorders:

It includes-

  • Polycythemia/Erythrocytosis.

Concept about Anaemia or Anemia:

Anemia is when the level of healthy red blood cells (RBCS) in the body becomes too low. This can lead to health problems because RBCs contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to the body’s tissues. Anemia can cause a variety of complications, including fatigue (tiredness) and stress on the body’s organs.

Having fewer red blood cells than normal can happen because:

  • The body is destroying red blood cells.
  • Red blood cells are being lost.
  • The body is producing red blood cells too slowly.

Anemia is a fairly common blood disorder with many causes. It includes inherited disorders, nutritional problems (such as an iron or vitamin deficiency), infections, some kinds of cancer, and exposure to a or toxin.

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