Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): Purpose, Indications and Complications

Definition of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR):

It is a medical procedure designed to restore normal breathing after cardiac arrest that includes the clearance of air passages to the lungs, the mouth-to-mouth method of artificial respiration, and cardiac massage by the exertion of pressure on the chest.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Fig: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It is an emergency lifesaving procedure that is done when someone’s breathing or heartbeat has stopped. This may happen after an electric shock, heart attack, or drowning.

Purposes of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR):

  1. To maintain and open airway.
  2. To maintain breathing with external ventilation.
  3. To maintain blood circulation by external cardiac messages.
  4. To save life of the patient.
  5. To provide basic life support till medical and advanced life support arrived.

What are the Indications and Contraindications of CPR?

Indications of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR):

1. Cardiac arrest:

2. Respiratory arrest:

  • Drowning,
  • Stroke,
  • Foreign body in throat,
  • Smoke inhalation,
  • Suffocation,
  • Coma,
  • Epiglottis paralysis.

Contraindications of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR):

The only absolute contraindication to CPR is a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order or other advanced directive indicating a person’s desire to not be resuscitated in the event of cardiac arrest. A relative contraindication to performing CPR is if a clinician justifiably feels that the intervention would be medically futile.

What are the Complications of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)?

Complications of CPR includes the following:

  1. Coronary vessel injury,
  2. Diaphragm injury,
  3. Hemopericardium,
  4. Interference with ventilation,
  5. Liver injury,
  6. Myocardial injury,
  7. Pneumothorax,
  8. Rib fracture.
  9. Spleen injury
  10. Sternal fracture,

Important Steps Before Going to Give CPR Victim:

  1. Is the person conscious or unconscious?
  2. If the person appears unconscious, tap or shake his or her shoulder &ask loudly “Are you ok?
  3. If the does not respond and two people are available, one should call local emergency number or blue code and one should begin CPR
  4. Then perform spell C-A-B

C= means compression

A= Airway,

B= Breathing,

Which help people remember the order to perform the steps of CPR.

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