Chicken Pox Disease with Sign, Treatment and Nursing Intervention

Definition of Chicken Pox Disease:

Chicken pox disease (also known as Varicella) is a highly contagious viral illness characterized by a very small, itchy, red skin rash which eventually scab over.

Chicken pox disease
Chickenpox disease

Causative Agent:

Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) is the causative agent for chickenpox.

Incubation Period:

If a person stays with the chickenpox-affected person with close contact (such as face to face, touching affected people cloth) he or she will in high risk of affecting by the chickenpox virus. The incubation period is 7 to 21 days after exposure to the Varicella Zoster Virus to the development of the symptoms.

Contagious Period:

A person with chicken pox can spread the disease from 1 to 2 days before the rash appears and until the rash is completely dry and scabbed over.


  1. Direct contact with the blister of chicken pox.
  2. By droplet (Coughing or sneezing).
  3. Contact with infected items such as cloth, towel, and bedsheets.

Risk Factors of Chicken Pox Disease:

Various risk factors for chicken pox are mentioned in the following:

  1. Children (Under 10 years) are more susceptible than adults.
  2. The person who has never experienced chicken pox.
  3. The person who is not vaccinated against Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV).
  4. Pregnant women.
  5. People with a weak immune system (HIV/ AIDS, Cancer).
  6. Organ transplants (Kidney and Liver transplant).
  7. Taking immune-suppressive drugs such as chemotherapy or long-term using steroids.

Sign and Symptoms of Chicken Pox Disease:

There are different types of sign and symptoms for chickenpox, those are mentioned below:

  1. The first symptoms of chicken pox include fever (100.4°F-103°F),
  2. Loss of appetite,
  3. Tiredness and sluggish,
  4. Malaise,
  5. Headache and oral soars,
  6. After 1 or 2 days an itchy rash appears,
  7. Rash spreads from the torso to the neck, face, and limbs.
  8. Rash progresses from red bumps to fluid-filled blisters,
  9. Blister lasting 7 to 10 days.
  10. Blister also appears on the inside of the mouth, on the scalp, around the eyes, and on the genitals area.

Test and Diagnosis for Chicken Pox Disease:

Various types of test and diagnosis for chicken pox are mentioned in the following:

  1. Primary diagnosis based on signs, symptoms, and characteristics of rash.
  2. Direct fluorescent antibody.
  3. IGM to identify a response to acute infection.
  4. Ultrasound for pregnant women to check for birth defects.
  5. PCR test of amniotic fluid to identify any risk of spontaneous abortion.

Treatment for Chicken Pox Disease:

There are different types of treatment for chicken pox disease, those are mentioned below:

  1. Rest.
  2. For healthy adults or children, no need for hospitalizing, just take-home treatment.
  3. Tepid baths with ½ cup of sodium bicarbonate or solutions such as Pinetarsol added can also help relieve itching.
  4. Antiviral drugs (Acyclovir, Famciclovir, and Valacyclovir).
  5. Pain killer and antipyretics drug (Acetaminophen, Paracetamol).
  6. Antihistamine diphenhydramine (Benadryl), to reduce itching and swelling.
  7. Topical lotion (Calamine bacterial infection).
  8. Over-the-counter hydrocortisone cream on itchy areas.

Prevention for Chicken Pox Disease:

Various prevention ways for Chicken Pox disease are in the following:

  1. Isolation care,
  2. Hygiene measures,
  3. Vaccine.

A complication for Chicken Pox Disease:

There are different complications for chicken pox, those are in the below:

  1. Persistent sleepiness or lethargy,
  2. Dehydration,
  3. Bleeding problems,
  4. Encephalitis, Cerebral ataxia, meningitis,
  5. Bacterial infection,
  6. Sepsis,
  7. Bone and joint infection (Transient Arthritis),
  8. Toxic shock syndrome,
  9. Death,
  10. Reye’s Syndrome,
  11. Myocarditis,
  12. Pneumonia.

Nursing Intervention for Chicken Pox Disease:

There are different types of nursing intervention for chicken pox; those are mentioned in the following:

  1. Assess patient sign condition carefully and check any complication.
  2. Provide 100% cotton and loose dress to prevent discomfort and break up a blister.
  3. Give baths with cool or Luke warm water every 3 to 4 hours for the first few days.
  4. Use baking soda in water to give a bath.
  5. Use cool and wet towels to dry skin.
  6. Apply calamine lotion over the lesions to reduce itching.
  7. Apply a soothing moisturizer after bathing to soften and cool the skin.
  8. Encourage the patient to do not scratch blister and trim fingernails.
  9. Cover child hands with socks or mittens to avoid scratching.
  10. Avoid nappy or diaper as much as possible to allow the vesicle to dry out and scab.
  11. Monitor fever and give age-appropriate paracetamol as ordered.
  12. Administer antibiotics if any secondary bacterial complications arise.
  13. Administer over the counter medication for alive itching as ordered.
  14. Keep hold of aspirin-like medication if the patient takes previously as the doctor advised.
  15. Serve cold, soft, and bland diet because chickenpox in the mouth can make drinking or eating difficult.
  16. Instruct patient to avoid prolonged exposure to excessive heat and humidity.
  17. Provide isolation care to prevent the spread of infection and dispose of all PPE properly.
  18. A limited visitor to reduce the chance of infection.
  19. Encourage the patient to pit in a bin carefully to prevent spread.
  20. Wash hands carefully before and after each treatment to Prevent secondary infection of the skin lesions.
  21. Instruct patient and family members to disinfect clothes and linen with hot water and soap and dry in the sunlight.

More questions related to this topic:

  1. Chickenpox: Picture, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention.
  2. Chickenpox (Varicella): Get Facts on Symptoms.
  3. Facts about Chickenpox for Adults.
  4. Chickenpox (Varicella)-Topic Overview.
  5. Symptoms and Causes – Chickenpox.
  6. How Long Does Chicken Pox Last?
  7. How Do You Get Chicken Pox?
  8. How Long is Chicken Pox Contagious for?
  9. Where Does Chicken Pox Come from?
  10. Chicken Pox Cancer or Chicken Pox Diabetes.
  11. Chicken Pox Disease Process.
  12. Chicken Pox Definition.
  13. Chicken Pox Symptoms.
  14. Chicken Pox Disease Treatment.

1 thought on “Chicken Pox Disease with Sign, Treatment and Nursing Intervention”

  1. Wow, I didn’t realise just how huge the complications could be with chicken pox. I’ll definitely be extra vigilant now. These are great, extensive tips for helping chicken pox and there are definitely some I didn’t know about, which I’ll be passing on to the mums I know!

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