Types, Symptoms and Causes of Diarrhoea in Children

Definition of Diarrhea in Children:

Diarrhea is defined as the passage of loose, liquid or watery stools, more than three times per day. It is the passages of loose watery stool more than 3 times a day. Diarrhea can be defined as increased stool frequency and lose of watery stool.

Diarrhea in children
Fig: Diarrhea in children

The most common cause is an infection of the intestines due to cither a virus, bacteria, or parasite; a condition known as gastroenteritis. These infections are often acquired from food or water that has been contaminated by stool, or directly from another person who is infected.

Classification or Type of Diarrhea in Children:

Diarrhea is classified according to the below:

1. According to duration:

  • Acute diarrhea (< 2 weeks),
  • Chronic diarrhea (<2 Weeks or longer).

2. Clinical classification:

  • Acute watery diarrhea (lasting for few hours to day),
  • Invasive diarrhea (visible blood with stool),
  • Persistent diarrhea: (<2 weeks or longer).

3. According to causative agent:

  • Infective,
  • Non-infective.

4. Pathological diarrhea:

  • Osmotic diarrhea,
  • Secretory diarrhea,
  • Inflammatory diarrhea,
  • Abnormal motility.

Causes of Diarrhea in Children:

Causes of acute watery diarrhea in young children are-

  • Rota virus,
  • Vibrio cholera,
  • Salmonell,
  • Enterotoxegenic E. Coli,
  • Shigella,
  • Campylobacter jejuni,
  • Cryptosporidium.

Common Causes of Diarrhea in Child:

1. Invasive:

a. Bacterial:

  • Shigella species,
  • Entero-hemorrhagic E-Coli,
  • Entero invasive E- coli,
  • Salmonella typhi,
  • Vibro parahaemolyticus,
  • Escherichia enterocolitica.

b. Parasitic

  • E-Histolytica,
  • Giardia intestinalis,
  • Cryptosporidium.

2. Non-invasive:

a. Bacterial:

  • V. cholera,
  • Entero-toxigenic E. coli,
  • Enterophathogenic E. coli,
  • Enterotoxin of staphylococcus aureus,
  • Enterotoxin of bacillus cereus,
  • Enterotoxin of clostridium perfringens type A.

b. Viral:

  • Rota virus,
  • Norwalk virus.

Signs and Symptoms of Diarrhea in Child:

Kids often get crampy abdominal pain first, followed by diarrhea that usually lasts no more than a few days. Infections with the viruses, bacteria, and parasites that lead to diarrhea also can cause:

  • Peeing less often (fewer wet diapers),
  • Acting fussy or irritable,
  • Dry mouth,
  • No tears when he cries,
  • Unusual drowsiness or sluggishness,
  • Sunken soft spot on the top of the baby’s head,
  • Skin that isn’t as elastic as usual (doesn’t spring back when you gently pinch and release it),
  • Fever of 102 degrees or higher,
  • Belly pain,
  • Blood or pus in his poop, or poop that’s black, white, or red,
  • Sluggishness,
  • Vomiting.

More questions related to this topic:

  1. What do you mean by diarrhoea?
  2. What is diarrhea?
  3. Classify diarrhea.
  4. What are the types of diarrhea?
  5. Mention the classifications of diarrhea.
  6. Enumerate the common causes of diarrheal disorder in children.
  7. What are the causes of acute watery diarrhea in young children?
  8. What are the common causes of diarrhea?
  9. What are the sign and symptoms of diarrhea?

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