Hyponatremia Disease | Causes and Symptoms of Hyponatremia


Hyponatremia is a decrease in the sodium level < 135mEq/L in blood. In the majority of cases, it is occurred by an excess of water relative to solute and some underlying medical reasons, resulting in an electrolyte disturbance where the sodium concentration in the blood plasma is lower than normal condition. Common causes are heart failure, diuretic use, liver disease, diarrhea, renal disease, and the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion. Some important signs and symptoms of hyponatremia disease have been presented in this article.

Hyponatremia Disease or Or Water Intoxication
Hyponatremia Disease or Or Water Intoxication

What is Hyponatremia?

It refers to the low level of sodium concentration in the blood. Here, a normal sodium level lies between 135- 145 milliequivalents per each liter (mEq/L). It is normally defined when the sodium in blood falls below 135mEq/L. Severe hyponatremia is considered when the serum sodium level is less than 125mEq/L.

Different Causes of Hyponatremia:

There are various types of causes of it, which are pointed out below:

  1. Congestive heart failure,
  2. Hypothyroidism,
  3. Severe vomiting and diarrhea,
  4. Massive edema of any cause,
  5. Nephrotic syndrome in the kidneys,
  6. Certain medications such as diuretics, antidepressants, glucocorticoid and pain medications,
  7. Burns,
  8. Certain medications,
  9. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion( SIADH),
  10. Addison’s disease ( Adrenal gland insufficiency),
  11. Hormonal changes,
  12. Congenital Adrenal hyperplasia,
  13. Heart, kidney, and liver problems,
  14. Liver cirrhosis,
  15. Drinking too much water,
  16. A prolonged period of exercise such as marathons, ultra marathons.

Symptoms of Hyponatremia:

The presence and severity of symptoms depend on the level of plasma sodium. The severity of symptoms associated with how fast and severe the drop in the blood sodium level. There are different symptoms of it, which are presented in the following:

  1. Nausea and vomiting,
  2. Loss of appetite and decrease saliva production,
  3. Poor skin turgor and dry mucosa,
  4. Confusion or short term memory loss,
  5. Orthostatic fall in B/P,
  6. Lethargy,
  7. seizures,
  8. Headache,
  9. Confusion,
  10. Irritability,
  11. Restlessness,
  12. Muscles weakness, spasms or cramps,
  13. Convulsions/ seizures,
  14. Coma,
  15. Sluggishness,
  16. Fatigue and low energy.

Risk Factors of Hyponatremia Disease:

All the major risk factors of this type of disease have listed below:

  1. Age,
  2. Certain drugs,
  3. Conditions that decrease your body’s water excretion,
  4. Intensive physical activities.

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