How to Treat Meningitis? | Prevention of Meningitis Disease

What is Meningitis Disease?

It is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) which is surrounding your spinal cord and brain. The swelling from meningitis generally triggers different symptoms like fever, headache, and a stiff neck.

Meningitis disease
Fig: Meningitis disease

Treatment of Meningitis: 

Treatment in a hospital is advised in all cases of bacterial meningitis, as the condition can cause acute problems and requires close monitoring. Treatment is determined by the cause of this type of disease.

Bacterial Meningitis requires immediate hospitalization. Acute bacterial meninges must be treated immediately with-

A. Intravenous Antibiotics: 

It includes-

1. Neonate: Inj. Ampicillin (400 mg/kg/day I/V, 4 divided doses)

+ Inj. Gentamicin (5mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses),


Inj. Cefotaxime (third-generation cephalosporin),


Inj. Ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day once daily).

2. Pre-school child: Inj. Cefotaxime (60-75 mg/kg/day).

3. Older children and adults: Inj. Cefotaxime (2gm I/V 6 hourly),


Inj. Ceftriaxone (2gm I/V, 12 hourly).

The duration of therapy for this type of disease is generally 10-14 days.

B. Anti-inflammatory Therapy:

It includes-

  •  In. Corticosteroids like, Dexamethasone (0.15 mg/kg/dose given I/V, hourly for 2 days).
  • It should be given 15 minutes before antibiotic treatment.
  • This assists to ensure recovery and decrease the risk of complications, such as brain swelling and seizures.
  • There is no specific antibiotic for bacterial meninges. It depends on the bacteria involved.

Fungal meningitis is treated with antifungal agents.

Parasitic meningitis may either involve treating just the symptoms or attempting to treat the infection directly. This type may get better without antibiotic treatment which is depending on the cause. If it worsens, however, the doctor may try to treat the infection itself.

Viral meningitis may resolve on its own, but some reasons for this type will be treated with intravenous antiviral medications.

C. Symptomatic Treatment: 

It includes-

  • Paracetamol, Injectable/Tablet/Suppository, to control fever.
  • Diazepam or Phenobarbitone, Injectable/Tablet, to control convulsion/seizures.
  • Intravenous fluid and electrolytes, to prevent dehydration and maintain nutrition.

D. Treatment of Complications: 

It includes-

  • Increased Intracranial pressure can be treated with Inj. Mannitol (0.5 mg/kg I/V infusion.
  • In. Furosemide.
  • In case of shock, endotracheal intubation in ventilator machine.

How Can Meningitis Be Prevented?

Following measures could be taken for the prevention of this type of disease:

1. The best way to prevent bacterial meningitis is through vaccination:

The vaccines which are available to safe against the three major causes for bacterial are meningococcal disease, pneumococcal, and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b.

2. Other Points on Prevention:

  • Smoking raises the jeopardy of being a carrier of meninges bacteria. Stopping smoking is effective for good health and may lower the risk of spreading meninges germs.
  • Good personal hygiene can help to prevent the spread of disease.
  • Avoiding contact with sick people who have a bacterial meningococcal infection.
  • Avoid sharing drinks and personal items that may carry saliva or other fluids.

Author of This Article-
Shahinur Begum
Asst. Editor of Nursing Exercise
Dhaka, Bangladesh
Email: [email protected]

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