Signs, Causes and Risk Factors of Suicide

Definition of Suicide:

According to S. nimbi “Suicide is the act of taking owns life intentionally which occurs as a result of mental illness such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, alcoholism, or drug abuse.”

Fig: Suicide

Definition of Homicide:

Homicide occurs when one human being causes the death of another human being. Homicides can be divided into many overlapping types, including murder, manslaughter, justifiable homicide, killing in war, euthanasia, and execution, depending on the circumstances of the death.

Sign and Symptoms of Suicide:

1. Behavioral symptoms:

  • Giving away prized possessions,
  • Talking about death and dying,
  • Using phrases such as “when I am gone or I’m going to kill myself,
  • Saying good bye for to loved ones,
  • Obtaining items needed for suicide attempt,
  • Decreased social contact,
  • Increased risky behavior.

2. Cognitive symptoms:

  • Preoccupation with death and dying,
  • Belief that suicide is the only way to end emotional plan.

3. Psychological symptoms:

  • Feeling of helpless,
  • Self-loathing,
  • Hopelessness,
  • Paranoia,
  • Intense emotional pain,
  • Mood swings,
  • Sudden changes of personality,
  • Severe anxiety and agitation.

Different Causes of Suicide:

1. Bio-psychosocial:

  • Depression,
  • Bipolar disorder,
  • Schizophrenia,
  • Anxiety disorder,
  • Personality disorder,
  • Substance abuse,
  • Childhood abuse,
  • A terminal or serious illness,
  • Previous suicide attempts,
  • Having a chronic disease,
  • Low self-esteem,
  • A horrible disappointment,
  • Relationships problem.

2. Environmental:

  • Social loss, such of the loss of a significant others,
  • Access to lethal means, including firearms and drugs,
  • Being exposed to suicide,
  • Being a victim of harassment or physically abuse,
  • Verbal abuse,
  • Feeling helpless,
  • Unresolved abuse,
  • Feeling trapped in a situation perceived as negative.

3. Socio cultural:

  • A serious loss such as job, house or money,
  • Loss of hope,
  • Unemployment,
  • Social isolation,
  • Financial problem.

Risk Factors of Suicide:

1. Health factors:

a) Mental health conditions:

  • Depression,
  • Bipolar disorder,
  • Schizophrenia,
  • Borderline or antisocial personality disorder,
  • Conduct disorder,
  • Psychotic disorder,
  • Anxiety disorder.

b) Substance abuse disorders

c) Serious and chronic health condition or pain.

2. Environmental factors:

a) Stressful life events such as death of loveable one, lost of job, divorce.

b) Prolonged stress factors which may include harassment, bullying, relationships problem.

c) Physical abuse, sexual abuse.

d) Isolation.

e) Black mailed by others.

3. Historical factors:

a) Previous suicidal attempts,

b) Family history of suicidal attempts.

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