Definition of Measles Disease or Measles Virus or Measles Rash:
Measles disease is also known as rubeola which is a highly contagious infection that is caused by measles virus. Measles is an airborne disease which spreads easily through the coughs and sneezes of the infected one.
Symptoms of Measles Disease:
There are different type’s symptoms of measles; those are mentioned in the following:
- High fever,
- Runny nose,
- Sore throat,
- Hacking cough,
- Red eye and sensitivity to light (Conjunctivitis),
- Full body rash,
- Koplik’s spots (Small red spots with blue-white centers that appear inside the mouth).
Different Periods for Measles Disease:
10-15days is the incubation period of Measles. In those days no sign or symptoms will appear.
2. Exposure Period:
The measles rash appears 2-4days after the initial symptoms and lasts for up to eight days. Measles typically begins with mild to moderate fever, accompanied with cough, runny nose sore throat and red eyes. Small red rash first appears to face then after few days spread to the whole body with 104°F to 105°F temperature.
3. Communicable Period:
Measles are infectious from starting four days before the rash appears and ending when the rash has been present for four days.
Risk Factors of Measles Disease:
Various risk factors for Measles are mentioned in the below:
1. Non immunized:
A person who did not received the vaccine of measles.
2. International Travelers:
A person who travels one country to another country may have chance of measles.
3. Vitamin A deficiency:
A person who do not take sufficient vitamin-A containing food, have more likely to affected by measles and to have more chance for severe symptoms.
Causes of Measles Disease:
Measles disease is caused by a virus in the paramyxovirus family (A paramyxoviridae).
Mode of Transmission:
The measles virus is highly contagious. The measles virus is contained with the millions of tiny droplets that come out the nose and mouth when an infected person coughs or sneezes. So, measles is transmitted through droplet (Airborne) or direct contact with contaminated dust.
The virus remains active and contagious in the air or on infected surfaces for up to 2 hours. It can be transmitted by an infected person from 4 days prior to the onset of the rash to 4 days after the rash erupts.
Test and Diagnosis for Measles:
There are various types of test and diagnosis ways for measles disease; those are mentioned in the following:
- Clinical sign and symptoms,
- Physical examination,
- Blood test (IGM),
- Viral culture.
Treatment for Measles Disease:
No specific antiviral treatment exists for measles virus but supportive treatment is necessary to relief symptoms. There are different types of supportive treatment ways for Measles, those are mentioned in the below:
1. Control fever and relief pain:
Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or naproxen can to reduce high fever and relief pain, ache.
2. Adequate of rest and isolation:
Get plenty of rest and stay out of school , workplace, public place at least 4 days after the rash first appear.
3. Vitamin A supplements:
Two doses of vitamin A supplements should be taken 24 hours apart after exposure to Measles. Vitamin A helps to nourished children and can help to prevent eye damage and blindness.
4. ORS (Oral re-hydration solution):
Ensure adequate fluid intake and to treat dehydration that are lost through diarrhea or vomiting.
Antibiotics should be prescribed to treat eye and ear infection and pneumonia.
Complications for Measles Disease:
There are different types of complications for measles, those are mentioned in the below:
- Ear infection (Oititis media),
- Bronchitis, Laryngitis,
- Diarrhea and vomiting,
- Pregnancy problems(Miscarriage or premature labour),
- Sub acute sclerosing pan-encephalitis (SSPE).
Prevention for Measles Disease:
Various types of prevention for measles are mentioned in the below:
- Vaccination (MMR),
- Pregnant women should vaccinated by HNIG injection.
Nursing Intervention for Measles Disease:
There are different types of nursing intervention for measles disease; those are mentioned in the following:
- Assess patient for severity of symptoms.
- Check mouth for sore throat and koplik’s sign.
- Check patient that he/she is eating well or not.
- Encourage the patient to take food adequately and assure food (Semisolid) as patient likes.
- Encourage the patient to take adequate fluid if diarrhea present and treat dehydration.
- Provide antipyretic and pain relieving medicine as ordered.
- Monitor temperature to identify sign of infection.
- Check vitals four hourly and record it.
- Provide isolation care and properly dispose all gown, mask and gloves.
- Avoid spread of infection and do not serve another patient with measles patient.
- Encourage patient to sneeze and coughing with caution and pit in a bin.
- Encourage Patient to stay out of home for 8 days and explain importance properly.
- Provide psychological care.
- Ensure adequate rest to overcome symptoms within few days.
- Check any complications such ear infection, eye infection and inform doctor.
- Give antibiotic exactly as doctor ordered.
- Keep the patient in an adequately ventilated room but free from drafts and chilling to avoid complications of pneumonia.
- Administer vitamin-A supplement for malnourished child to avoid complication.
- Give health education about vaccination.
- Encourage the patient and family to vaccinated baby as schedule time to active immunity against measles.
- Encourage the pregnant women who never experienced measles to take one HNIG to avoid measles.
- Maintain good hand hygiene to prevent secondary infection.
- Clean eyelid with saline solution to remove secretion and give eye drops.
- Keep environment cool to reduce itching.
- Relieve itching of skin by tepid bath and soothing lotion.
- Use cool moist vaporizer, mouthwash and tablets to keep mucous membranes moist.
- Teach, guide and supervise correct technique of giving sponge bath for comfort of patient.
More questions related this topic:
- Measles: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatments.
- Measles – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- Is Measles a Disease or Virus?
- Is the Measles Fatal?
- Can You Get the Measles More than Once?
- How Many People have Died from the Measles?
- Measles Disease Definition.
- Measles Disease Symptoms.
- Measles Symptoms.
- Measles Disease Facts.
- Measles Disease Treatment.