Urinary Tract Infection (UTIS):
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the urinary system. A Urinary tract infection has different names according to the different affected parts of the urinary system. Such as Bladder infection (Cystitis), Urethra infection (Urethritis), Kidney infection (Pyelonephritis) and Ureter infection (Ureteritis).
Causes of Urinary Tract Infection (UTIS):
Most urinary tract infections (UTIS) are due to bacteria which enter the urethra and then the bladder. Those bacteria are usually live in the digestive system. Some important causes of urinary tract infections (UTIS) have mentioned in the below:
- Staphylococcus saprophyticus( 5-10%)
Rarely may be affected by virus and fungus. Like Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Klebsiella, Candida Albicans, Pseudomonas, and staphylococcus aureus that typically occur as a secondary to blood born infection.
Risk Factors of Urinary Tract Infection (UTIS):
Some key factors increase the risk of UTI. Those are in the following-
- Gender: Women have more risk than men as their urethras are shorter than men,
- Sexual activity: Sexually active women tend to have more chance to UTIs then sexually inactive women,
- Problems emptying the bladder,
- Bowel incontinenc,
- Heavy use of antibiotics,
- Kidney stones: Kidney stones or BPH can trap urine in the bladder and increase the risk of UTI,
- Using contraception: Women who use a diaphragm for birth control,
- Suppressed immune system: HIV/AIDS, Chemotheraphy for cancer suppress immune system and increase risk of UTI,
- Poor personal hygiene: After urinating or intercourse not clean properly increase tends to UTI,
- Pregnancy: Uterus gives pressure on urethra and bladder, for that frequent urination and poor hygiene increase risk of UTI,
- Urinary catheterization: Long term catheter use can increase risk of UTI,
- Immobility for a long period,
- Menopause: After menopause, stop release secretion estrogen which changes the normal bacteria in the vagina, this can increase the risk of UTI.
- Hormone replacement therapy (Estrogen) can reduce the infection of postmenopausal women.