Clinical Significant Of Physical Assessment in Pregnancy

Clinical Significant Of Physical Assessment in Pregnancy

Definition of Pregnancy:

Pregnancy which is also termed as gestation is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology.

Physical Assessment in Pregnancy
Fig: Physical Assessment in Pregnancy

Pregnancy is the state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. This condition can be detected by positive results on an over-the-counter urine test, ultrasound, and confirmed through a blood test, detection of fetal heartbeat, or an X-ray. It lasts for about nine months which is measured from the date of the woman’s last menstrual period (LMP).

Clinical Significant Of Physical Assessment in Pregnancy:

It includes the following:

  1. To maintain healthy body weight.
  2. Correction of BMI <18 or >30 kg/m2.
  3. Determine gestational age.
  4. Detect multiple pregnancies.
  5. Identify or confirm following disease:
  • Cardiac disease, including hypertension.
  • Renal disease.
  • Diabetes treated with insulin, or any other endocrinological disorder.
  • Significant respiratory impairment, inluding severe asthma.
  • Chronic viral infections – eg, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV)
  • Autoimmune disorders.
  1. To identify problems associated with previous pregnancies:
  • Recurrent miscarriage (>3 consecutive pregnancy losses or a mid-trimester loss).
  • Preterm birth.
  • Severe pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome (Haemolysis, EL (elevated liver) enzymes, LP (low platelet) count), or eclampsia.
  • Previous antepartum haemorrhage or postpartum haemorrhage on two occasions.
  • Grand multiparity (>6 children).

Physical Examination for Pregnant Women:

It includes the following:

  • Height and weight,
  • Blood pressure,
  • Urinalysis,
  • Blood test: Hemoglobin, Blood grouping and Rh, VDRL, HBs Ag.

Midwife’s examination:

It includes the following:

  • General appearance,
  • Breast examination,
  • Vaginal discharge/bleeding,
  • Abdominal examination,
  • Edema,
  • Varicosities.

Most Common Signs and Symptoms of Pregnancy:

The most common early signs and symptoms of pregnancy might include:

  • Missed period.
  • Tender, swollen breasts.
  • Nausea with or without vomiting: Morning sickness, which can strike at any time of the day or night, often begins one month after become pregnant. However, some women feel nausea earlier and some never experience it
  • Increased urination: The amount of blood in body increases during pregnancy, causing kidneys to process extra fluid that ends up in bladder.
  • Fatigue.

Other less obvious signs and symptoms of pregnancy that might experience during the first trimester include:

  • Moodiness,
  • Bloating,
  • Light spotting,
  • Cramping,
  • Constipation,
  • Food aversions,
  • Nasal congestion,
  • Spotting,
  • Bloating,
  • Nausea and vomiting,
  • Sore breasts and tingly nipples,
  • Frequent urination,
  • Back pain,
  • Headaches,
  • Irritability or mood swings,
  • Food aversions/cravings,
  • Fatigue and sleeplessness,
  • Bleeding gums,
  • Palmar Erythema,
  • Nasal congestion,
  • High basal body temperature,
  • Low sexual desire,
  • Pigmentation,
  • Dark line of hair on the body,
  • Acne,
  • Itching sensation on the skin,
  • Spider veins,
  • Dry skin,
  • Enlargement of uterus.

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