Complication, Prevention and Management of Diarrhoea in Child

Pediatric Diarrhoea or Diarrhea in Child Guidelines:

Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. Signs of dehydration often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin and irritable behavior. This can progress to decreased urination, loss of skin color, a fast heart rate, and a decrease in responsiveness as it becomes more severe. Loose but non-watery stools in babies who are breastfed, however, may be normal.

Diarrhea in child
Fig: Diarrhea in child

Diarrhea is defined as the passage of loose, liquid or watery stools, more than three times per day. It is the passages of loose watery stool more than 3 times a day. Diarrhea can be defined as increased stool frequency and lose of watery stool.

Nursing Interventions or Management of Diarrhea in Child:

Nursing management of a case of acute watery diarrhea are-

  1. Restoring fluid and electrolyte balance by ORS, IV fluid therapy, intake and output recording and checking of vital signs.
  2. Prevention of spread of infection by good hand washing practices, hygienic disposal of stools, care of diapers, general cleanliness and universal precautions.
  3. Preventing skin breakdown by frequent change of diaper, keeping the perianal area dry and clean, avoiding scratching and rubbing of irritated skin and use of protective barrier cream.
  4. Providing adequate nutritional intake by appropriate dietary management.
  5. Reducing fear and anxiety by explanation, reassurance, answering questions and providing necessary information
  6. Giving health education for prevention of diarrhea home management of diarrheal diseases, importance of ORS, dietary management, hygienic practices, medical help, etc.

Complications of Diarrhea in Child:

It includes the following:

  • Electrolyte imbalance,
  • Growth failure,
  • Renal shut down.

Prevention and Control of Diarrhoea in Child:

Necessary preventive measures of diarrhea includes the following-

1. Sanitation:

  • Improved water supply,
  • Improved excreta disposal,
  • Improved domestic and food hygiene.

2. Breastfeeding and weaning practice:

  • Encouragement to other for giving colostrum to the new born infant.

3. Use of sanitary latrine:

  • Human faeces contain various kinds of bacteria and parasite. So for proper disposal everyone should use sanitary latrine.

4. Personal hygiene:

  • Compulsory washing of hands before handing food items and after defecation to protect family member.

5. Water for drinking and domestic-use:

  • It should be free from faecál contamination.

6. Vaccine against rotavirus.

7. Health education .

8. Fly control.

9. Immunization against measles.

More questions related to this topic:

  • What do you mean by diarrhoea?
  • What is diarrhea?
  • Discuss the nursing management of diarrhoea.
  • What are the nursing interventions of diarrhea?
  • Discuss the nursing management of a case of acute watery diarrhoea?
  • What are the complications of nursing management of diarrhea?
  • How diarrhoea can be prevented?
  • What are the preventive measures of diarrhoea?
  • State the prevention of diarrhoea.

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