Different Types and Mode of Transmission of Communicable Disease

Mode of Transmission and Types of Communicable Disease

Definition of Communicable Disease:

An illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic product capable of being directly or indirectly transmitted from man to man, man to animal, animal to man, animal to animal or from environment (through air, dust, soil, water, food etc.) to man or animal.

Types of communicable disease
Fig: Types of communicable disease

Classification or Types of Communicable Disease:

Bacterial diseases

Diphtheria, enteric fever ,whooping cough,plague, anthrax

Viral diseases

Poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis, influenza, bird flu etc.

Protozoal diseases

Amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, malaria etc.

Helminthic diseases

Ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, filariasis, taeniasis etc.

Sexual transmitted diseases

Syphilis, gonorrhea, AIDS etc.

Zoonotic diseases

Rabies, brucellosis, hydatid disease etc.

Arthropod borne diseases

Dengue, malaria, kala-azar etc.


ARI, SARS, Food poisoning


Respiratory infection

Small pox, chickenpox, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Influenza, Diphtheria, Whooping cough, Meningococcal meningitis, ARI, SARS, TB.

Intestinal infection

Poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis, cholera, Acute diarrheal diseases, typhoid fever, Food poisoning, Ameobeasis, Ascariasis, Hookworm infection.

Arthropod borne disease

The dengue syndrome malaria, lympathic filariasis


Rabies, Yellow fever, Brucellosis, plague, Human salmenolosis, Ricketsial diseas, Taeniasis, Hydatid disease, Leismeniasis.

Surface infection

Trachoma, tetanus, Leprosy, STD, Endemic treponomatosis, AIDS.

Mode of Transmission of Communicable Disease:

1. Direct transmission or contact:

  • Direct contact: Touching an infected person by any means, including Sexual contact. eg. Leprosy, many skin and eye infections, STD (sexual transmitted disease) and AlDS.
  • Dropiet Intection:- Disease transmission by saliva and nasopharyngeal secretions through coughing or sneezing, speaking and spitting into the atmosphere. eg. Tuberculosis (TB), Diphtheria, Pertussis, and many other respiratory infections.
  • Contact with soil. eg. Hookworm larvae, Tetanus, mycosis,
  • Trans-placental:- AIDS, Hepatitis B, Syphilis, etc.
  • Skin or mucous membrane: – eg, Rabies viruses by dog bite, HBV.

2. Indirect transmission or contact: It occurs by touching any object or surface. It encompasses the 5 “F’s these are flies, finger, fomites, food and fluid.

  • Vehicle borne: – Water, food, ice, blood, serum, plasma and other biological product. eg
  • Vector borne: – Biological, Mechanical.
  • Airborne transmission: -If the microorganism remain in the air for long periods as droplet nuclei and dust.
  • Fomite borne: – Soiled clothes, towels, linen, handkerchiefs, cups, spoons, pencils, books, toys, door, handles, drinking glasses, tap, syringes, instruments and surgical dressings.
  • Unclean hands and fingers.

Communicable Disease in Children:

It includes the following:

  • Measles,
  • Malaria,
  • Tetanus,
  • Diphtheria,
  • Pertussis,
  • Scabies,
  • Chickenpox,
  • Viral hepatitis,
  • Influenza,
  • Mumps,
  • Poliomyelitis,
  • Diarrhoeal diseases,
  • Leprosy,
  • Dengue syndrome.

Non-Communicable Disease in Children:

It includes the following:

More questions related to this article:

  1. Define communicable diseases
  2. What do you mean by communicable diseases?
  3. What is meant by communicable diseases?
  4. Classify the modes of transmission of communicable disease with one example of each.
  5. Explain disease transmission.
  6. Classify communicable diseases.
  7. What are the different types of communicable diseases?
  8. Name the common communicable & Non-communicable disease in children?

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