Nursing Management, Treatment and Prevention of Thalassemia

Treatment, Preventions and Nursing Management of Thalassemia

What Do You Mean By Thalassemia Disease?

Thalassemia is a group of hereditary hemolytic anemia characterized by reduction in the synthesis of hemoglobin. Thalassemia is a heterogeneous group of disorder; all are characterized by absence or decreased synthesis of α or β chain of HbA.

Nursing management of thalassemia disease
Fig: Nursing management of thalassemia disease

Treatment of Thalassemia Disease:

  • Blood transfusion at regular interval.
  • No iron therapy.
  • If features of iron load found or after a reasonable period give desferrioxamine – SC by infusion pump for children 50-60 mg/kg/ day for adults.
  • Vitamin C can be given which enhance iron excretion.
  • Splenectomy – if the enlarged spleen.
  • Tab. folic acid 58 mg daily life long.
  • Give proper Rx for infection and take prophylactic measures.
  • If features of organ failure develop, , steps are taken accordingly.
  • Bone marrow transplantation.

Nursing Management of Thalassemia Disease:

  1. Assessment of child condition to prevent complications that can be done as hospital based or community based (at home).
  2. Preparation for repeated hospitalization for treatment of the disease and its complications.
  3. Arrangement of necessary diagnostic measures.
  4. Administration of blood transfusion and iron chelating agent with appropriate precautions for specific therapy.
  5. Provision of supportive care with rest, comfort, nutritious diet with restriction of iron containing food. Vitamin supplementation, immunization, hygienic care and other symptomatic care.
  6. Prevention of infection by aseptic techniques and promotion of general cleanliness. Preoperative and postoperative care during splenectomy with necessary health education after the surgery.
  7. Information regarding treatment plan, prognosis and complications to be given to parent and family members with appropriate explanation.
  8. Emotional support to the parents and family for effective coping about the stress of the illness.
  9. Teaching the parent about importance of follow-up, blood transfusion, investigations, and signs of complications, dietary restriction, activity modification, recreation, diversion and available treatment facilities.
  10. Referral and necessary guidance for available support services and community facilities.

Preventions of Thalassemia Disease:

  • Antenatal screening in the first trimester of pregnancy by amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling or fetoscopy help to detect thalassemia in fetal life.
  • Genetic counseling in that respect is very important preventive measure which guides the parent to decide whether to continue pregnancy with thalassemic fetus or to terminate pregnancy (by MTP) of affected fetus.
  • Carriers can be detected by simple blood examination or by identification of thalassemia gene.
  • Creation of awareness among public regarding detection of thalassemia gene before marriage and marital counseling are also very important preventive aspect.

More questions related to this article:

  1. Define thalassemia.
  2. What is thalassemia?
  3. Write down the treatment of thalassemia.
  4. How will you manage a case of thalassemia?
  5. Write down the nursing interventions for thalassemia.
  6. A thalassemia patient who has chronic pain, cardiac dysfunction and anemia. How will you manage this case?
  7. State the nursing management of thalassemia.
  8. How thalassemia can be prevented?

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