Health screening is one kind of nursing intervention in which detecting health risks or health problems by means of history, procedures and examinations. It is a public health service in which members of a determined population, who does not necessarily realize they are at risk of, or are already affected by a disease or its complications. Screening tests can fine diseases early, when they are easier to treat.
Health screening may include taking a personal and family health history and performing a physical examination, tests or radio logic examination and may be followed by counselling, education, denoting individual or group testing procedures.
What is Health Screening?
The screening refers to the search of unrecognized disease or detects disease before appear symptoms using of simple tests, examinations or procedures in apparently healthy individual. Screenings include measurements of vision, hearing, height, weight, development, scoliosis, blood pressure and other qualities referral or further testing.
Some conditions that commonly screen for include:
- Breast cancer and cervical cancer in women,
- Colo rectal cancer,
- High blood pressure,
- High cholesterol,
- Overweight and obesity,
- Prostate cancer in women.
Types of Health Screening:
Various types of health screening have explained in the below:
1. Multiphasic screening (Multiple screening):
It has been defined as the application of two or more screening tests in combination to a large number of people at one time than to carry out separate screening tests for single disease e.g.- hematological on blood or urine specimen.
2. High risk or Selective screening:
Screening is conducted among risk population only e.g. – screening for cancer cervix in the lower social groups.
3. Mass screening:
Mass screening simply means the screening of a whole population or a sub group for e.g. – all adults. It is offered to all, irrespective of the risk status of the individual.
Principle of Health Screening:
There are some important principles of health screening which are pointed out in the following:
- The condition should be an important health problem.
- There should be a recognizable latent or early symptomatic stage.
- There should be an accepted treatment for recognized disease.
- Facilities for diagnosis and treatment must be available.
- The test should be acceptable to the population that has high level of accuracy.
- There should be written agreed policy on whom to treat.
- The cost of screening (including diagnosis and treatment of patients diagnosed) should be economically balanced in relation to possible expenditure on medical care as a whole.
- Case-finding should be a continuous process, not just a “once and for all” project.
- The natural history of the condition, including development from latent to declared disease, should be adequately understood.